Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | March 13, 2019

Global Warming in the Bible

(4 Minute Read)

The currently purported global warming scare is not a sure thing. Weather continually changes. Some centuries of earth history have been warmer than today; others have been colder.

Experts Say: No Global Warming

Many people, including many scientists, have major doubts about the extent and significance of today’s purported global warming. For example, over 31,000 American scientists have signed a Global Warming Petition stating that man-generated greenhouse gases will not disrupt earth’s climate and that more atmospheric CO2 is beneficial.

Harvard-educated public policy analyst Peter Ferrara reported in Forbes on the 2012 International Climate Change Conference. The conference concluded:

Climate change itself is already in the process of definitively rebutting climate alarmists who think human use of fossil fuels is causing ultimately catastrophic global warming. That is because natural climate cycles have already turned from warming to cooling, global temperatures have already been declining for more than 10 years, and global temperatures will continue to decline for another two decades or more.
(Peter Ferrara, Sorry Global Warming Alarmists, The Earth Is Cooling, Forbes.com, May 31, 2012.)

Weather Channel co-founder and meteorologist John Coleman (1934–2018) received the Broadcast Meteorologist of the Year award in 1983 from the American Meteorological Society. Coleman insisted the theory of man-made climate change was not scientifically credible, calling it the “greatest scam in history.” He said,

I have studied climate change seriously for years. It has become a political and environment agenda item, but the science is not valid. . . . There is no significant man-made global warming at this time, there has been none in the past, and there is no reason to fear any in the future. Efforts to prove the theory that carbon dioxide is a significant greenhouse gas and pollutant causing significant warming or weather effects have failed. There has been no warming over 18 years.
(Jason Taylor, ‘Global warming the greatest scam in history’ claims founder of Weather Channel, The Express, June 9, 2015.)

Even Greenpeace co-founder and former president Patrick Moore disputes climate change claims. He said,

This abomination that is occurring today in the climate issue is the biggest threat to the Enlightenment that has occurred since Galileo. Nothing else comes close to it. . . . It’s taking over science with superstition and a kind of toxic combination of religion and political ideology. There is no truth to this. It is a complete hoax and scam.
(Tyler Durden, Global Warming A “Hoax And Scam” Pushed By Greedy Government Scientists: Greenpeace Co-Founder, March 08, 2019.)

Thus it is apparent that today’s global warming claims are fallacious and highly political. Nonetheless, global warming will eventually occur at some point in the future on a massive and extreme scale. This we know with certainty from the Bible itself!

Biblical Global Warming

Scripture speaks of an intense global warming that will occur in the future:
The LORD will come in fire and . . . His rebuke with flames of fire. For the LORD will execute judgment by fire. (Isaiah 66:15-16).
The day is coming, burning like a furnace; and all the arrogant and every evildoer will be chaff; and the day that is coming will set them ablaze,” says the LORD of hosts. (Malachi 4:1)

But this disastrous warming is due to solar activity, not man-generated CO2 emissions. The sun will be given power in the last days to scorch men with fire. Men will be seared with fierce heat. (Revelation 16:8-9)

Despite major doubts by many people about today’s purported global warming, there can be no doubt about the future global warming. The entire universe will be burned up.
The present heavens and earth by His word are being reserved for fire, kept for the day of judgment . . . earth and its works will be burned up . . . the heavens will be destroyed by burning, and the elements will melt with intense heat. (2 Peter 3:7-12)

This will not only be a global warming, but it will be a universal warming as the universe disintegrates in heat. The heavens and earth will be destroyed by burning as the elements will melt with intense heat.

What is the Apostle Peter’s “environmental counsel” regarding this impending global and universal warming? How does he say we should prepare? Peter’s “prepper advice” is very different from the advice of today’s proclaimers of global warming. Peter says this:
“Since all these things are to be destroyed in this way, what sort of people ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness. . . Be diligent to be found by Him in peace, spotless and blameless. . . Be on your guard lest, being carried away by the error of unprincipled men, you fall from your own steadfastness, but grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord.” (2 Peter 3:11,14-18)

In short, the Apostle Peter says to live righteously, grow in grace, and don’t be led astray.

The Apostle Paul also gives similar good advice. He urges,
“Examine everything carefully; hold fast to that which is good.” (1 Thessalonians 5:21)

The counsel of Scripture given through Peter and Paul is better than that of today’s global warming doomsayers.

It’s interesting that Peter and Paul both encourage diligent investigation to avoid being deceived. This suggests that Bible believers need to examine claims — including global warming claims — and not just accept them without evaluation.

Here’s a Rebus puzzle that reveals when the real global warming will occur. Can you figure out what this Rebus puzzle represents? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

The Global Warming everyone should be concerned about is the Biblical one that will come suddenly like a thief in the night (2 Peter 3:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:2). That’s the one that should drive personal, political, social, and economic changes.

Questions to Ponder

1. What else can inform thinking when scientists on different sides of an issue make conflicting claims?
2. How can you use global warming chatter as a segue to a conversation about God‘s judgment, mercy, and grace?
3. Do you take the need to prepare for future divine judgment as seriously as the urge to recycle and use resources responsibly?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: Judgment day.
[Judge+mint d+hay]
(Click Rebus Puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

This post is the last of the Global Warming series.
Read the prequels:
Global Worming?
Candle Warming
Global Warming
Global Warming: Climate Facts
Global Warming: Benefits & Repercussions
Global Warming: Analysis

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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday March 13, 2019 A.D.

But the present heavens and earth by His word are being reserved for fire, kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men. . .But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, in which the heavens will pass away with a roar and the elements will be destroyed with intense heat, and the earth and its works will be burned up.
(2 Peter 3:7,10)

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Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | March 6, 2019

Global Warming: Analysis

(3 Minute Read)

All forms of media assault us with global warming propaganda almost daily. The dire predictions seem alarming. But how do they know? Are these warnings true?

These climate change predictions are based on assumptions. And the assumptions are influenced by the worldview of the people in the climate change business.

Climate change warnings about future global warming are based on computer models that try to predict the climate 50 years or more into the future. These computer simulations are no more accurate than the estimates and assumptions that are built into the computer models. Yet, absurdly, predictions from these crude models are bruited as scientific fact.

Climate is a highly complex non-linear chaotic system. Interactions between ocean and atmosphere are poorly understood. Even the most powerful supercomputers cannot mathematically model weather accurately — climate is too complicated with too many variables.

Ten-day weather forecasts are notoriously inaccurate. Climate (average weather over time) is far more complicated than daily weather. Why think that climate can be accurately predicted decades from now? Why think we can predict the effect of today’s CO2 emissions on next century’s climate? That’s ludicrous!

Weather and climate are impossible to control. Nobody can accurately state the impact on weather of any proposed action. Effects on climate are equally unpredictable whether CO2 emissions rise or fall. Will global warming increase or decrease? Nobody knows what, if anything, will happen.

God designed the atmosphere-ocean system to maintain a stable climate for mankind via many self-balancing feedback mechanisms like the greenhouse effect and cloud cover. There are scores of biological, chemical, and physical processes which heat and cool earth. These natural thermostats maintain long-term thermal balance with short-term variation. Only a global catastrophe like Noah’s Flood could disrupt the climate.

Is the massive ocean-atmosphere system so
unstable that slight warming could tip it into
catastrophe?

After Noah’s Flood, God promised Noah regular cycles of seasons and temperatures.
While earth remains, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night shall not cease. (Genesis 8:22)
It is preposterous to believe that the massive ocean-atmosphere system is so unstable that slight warming could tip it into catastrophe.

Most yapping about global warming is global hot air. Global warming is a hoax based on bogus science. Temperature evidence shows at most only minor changes which are well within historical variation and not primarily man-generated. Measures proposed to mitigate global warming will cripple the world’s economies and severely impact the poor while producing negligible benefits, as discussed in Global Warming: Benefits & Repercussions.

Global warming is not a true crisis, but rather an agenda driven by politics, not science. Global warming hysteria is alarmist hype. Do politicians intend to increase global governance and government power through controlling energy? The recommended policies of global warming proponents will not save the planet — but they will result in higher taxes and more government control over people’s lives. Global warming propaganda is full of misleading data, exaggerated speculations, and invalid conclusions. It’s not a cause for alarm, unless people believe it. The crisis is not global warming but rather the associated hidden agenda and fear-mongering.

It’s important to be good stewards of the entire earth. Can you figure out why from what this Rebus puzzle represents? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

I believe it is essential to be good stewards of the earth, and I do not intend to discourage prudent stewardship. But I think that the measures advocated by proponents of global warming will cause substantial harm to mankind and to the earth. Instead of swallowing what we constantly read and hear, I believe that good stewards of the earth should sensibly evaluate global warming claims and mitigation proposals. I think the rational conclusion is that these are false and counter-productive respectively. Thus I think that good stewards will oppose the global warming movement.

The next post on Global Warming will cover what the Bible says about global warming.

Questions to Ponder

1. Are you alert to the pull of highly publicized, popular thought trends? Do you resist — so no one “takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ” as instructed in Colossians 2:8?
2. How do you obtain trustworthy, unbiased, and objective news?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: We’re all in the same boat.
[W+ear awl inn the s+hay+m bow+t]
(Click Rebus Puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

This post is part of the Global Warming series.
Read the prequels:
Global Worming?
Candle Warming
Global Warming
Global Warming: Climate Facts
Global Warming: Benefits & Repercussions

Read the sequel:
Global Warming in the Bible

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday March 6, 2019 A.D.

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | February 27, 2019

On Thinking

(4 Minute Read)

chess

Do you ever think about thinking?

About how to think?
About whether you think correctly?
About how to improve thinking skills?

Well, it’s time to think about thinking, because there is a widespread lack of good thinking today.

Who Said This?

Here are some insightful thoughts that a famous man once wrote about thinking — back in the 1940s before he became famous. See if you can guess who said this.

Clues to his identity are sprinkled throughout the discussion of his quotes. Here are his words:

Education must also train one for quick, resolute, and effective thinking. To think incisively and to think for one’s self is very difficult. We are prone to let our mental life become invaded by legions of half truths, prejudices, and propaganda. At this point, I often wonder whether or not education is fulfilling its purpose. A great majority of the so-called educated people do not think logically and scientifically. Even the press, the classroom, the platform, and the pulpit in many instances do not give us objective and unbiased truths. To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction.

The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason, but with no morals.
. . .
If we are not careful, our colleges will produce a group of close-minded, unscientific, illogical propagandists, consumed with immoral acts. Be careful, “brethren!” Be careful, teachers!

This posthumous recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom believed education should teach students how to think. But today education does not teach people how to think. Instead, for the most part, educators seek to inculcate what to think. The whole political correctness movement is about thinking along socially and politically accepted lines of thought. Critical thinking that disagrees is simply scorned, often without giving reasons.

This warning by an articulate 18-year-old has come true: today colleges produce “close-minded, unscientific, illogical propagandists, consumed with immoral acts.” These non-thinkers dominate the government, press, and universities.

Many people who idolize this 1963 Time Man of the Year do not think in the way he recommended, if they think at all.

This 1964 Nobel Prize winner had very good thoughts on thinking, but he did not always put them into practice. Despite issuing a clear call for critical thinking, this man was a theistic evolutionist. He was unable to see through the evolutionary story that human beings came from a long line of ever-more-primitive ancestors via gradual genetic mutations. He uncritically accepted the scientific propaganda promoting evolutionism. Misguidedly he wrote,

It seems quite possible to get an adequate religious view of the world in the light of emergent evolution and cosmic theism. Is it not possible for God to be working through the evolutionary process? May it not be the God is creating from eternity? Emergent evolution says essentially that in the evolutionary process there is a continuous incoming of the new. The question arises, from whence comes this emergence of new elements in the evolutionary process. The religious man answers, with a degree of assurance, that God is the source of the new emergents. In other words, God is working through the evolutionary process. As cosmic theism would say, there is an intelligent conscious mind working out its purpose through the evolutionary process. So that in the light of emergent evolution and cosmic theism we can come to an adequate religious view of the world, viz., creative evolution. Here we find creation and evolution existing together.

This posthumous recipient of the Congressional Gold Medal did not hold to foundational truths as he evaluated evolutionary claims. Despite being a preacher, he ignored the Genesis record that God created Adam from the dust of the earth in His image — not from existing creatures. He overlooked the impossibility of such complexity developing through random changes.

Who was this late orator who wrote such superb words on thinking, but who failed to implement them regarding thinking about man’s origin?

The author of these words was . . .

Author of Thoughts on Thinking

The author of these thoughts on thinking and origins was a southern preacher from Atlanta, Georgia. His remarks on thinking were taken from The Purpose of Education, an article he wrote for the January-February 1947 issue of the Maroon Tiger, the Morehouse College campus newspaper.

His words in support of theistic evolution were taken from an essay he wrote three years later for the final exam in his Christian Theology for Today class at Crozer Theological Seminary during the academic term ending in February 1950. Crozer Theological Seminary was located in Chester, Pennsylvania, the state’s oldest city.

Who was this thinker, preacher, and leader? He was Martin Luther King Jr (1929–1968).

Sudoku Puzzle
Place the numerals 1-9 in each row,
column, and 3×3 box. (Solution)

Puzzles & Games Develop Thinking Skills

Working puzzles can help develop thinking skills. I especially enjoy puzzles which require logic and analysis like Sudoku.

But I force myself to do other types of puzzles and games like crosswords, anagrams, Scrabble, and Rebus pictograms because they exercise more intuitive thinking at which I am less skilled. They can’t be solved simply by deductive analysis. They require the brain to subconsciously retrieve and coordinate information from disparate sources. Both kinds of thinking skills are important in daily life, and I like to work on keeping both types sharp.

Games like chess (see picture above) exercise both analytical thinking skills as well as intuitive, creative thinking skills. Similarly card games like bridge, hearts, and euchre require more than just logical analysis.

Practically any kind of learning, study, reading, or hobby helps with thinking skills.

Here’s an example of a Rebus puzzle in which a phrase is represented by a combination of pictures, symbols, and letters. Can you figure out what this Rebus puzzle represents? Some people consider it brain food. Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

Pay attention to thinking accurately and correctly!
Finally, brethren, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is of good repute, if there is any excellence and if anything worthy of praise, think on these things. (Philippians 4:8)

Questions to Ponder

1. In what area is it difficult for you to “sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction,” as Martin Luther King Jr. recommended?
2. What activities are you pursuing to keep your thinking sharp?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: Roast beef sandwich.
[Row+st bee+f sand+witch]
(Click Rebus Puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

Read my other blog posts On Thinking for more ideas on how to think and how to improve thinking skills:
Life of the Mind
Critical Thinking in Louisiana
The Beautiful Mind
Do You Think Like an Evolutionist?
Biblical Thinking
The Most Neglected Commandment

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday February 27, 2019 A.D.

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | February 20, 2019

Global Warming: Benefits & Repercussions

(3 Minute Read)

Weather continually changes — daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. We all look forward to changes in seasons, partially because of the weather changes.

Weather also changes on a larger scale than the yearly pattern. Some centuries-long periods of earth history have been colder than today; others have been warmer.

Are there benefits to a warmer climate? Americans who move south for the winter certainly think so.

What are the repercussions of trying to resist climate change by man-made efforts? Are there negative consequences of attempts to alter weather?

Global Warming Benefits

There are many major benefits of warmer weather trends. Warmer weather lengthens growing seasons. Higher CO2 levels accelerate plant growth. With increased CO2, leaves of plants lose less water, so the plants can grow in drier climates. Animal life, which depends on plant life, flourishes correspondingly. All these factors make food more plentiful, reducing food prices and helping alleviate world hunger. This is a major benefit of warmer weather.

Additionally, warmer weather makes colder regions more livable. Ten times as many people die from severe cold as from severe heat, so warmer temperatures save lives and fuel. This is a major economic benefit of warmer weather.

As man releases carbon from gas, oil, and coal into the atmosphere, the carbon is recycled into more abundant plants and animals. Future generations will enjoy an environment increasingly lush with flora and fauna as this recycling of carbon continues.

Here’s a Rebus puzzle that relates to the idea that additional warming increases plant life. Can you figure out what this Rebus puzzle represents? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

Repercussions

Many nations agreed to attempts to reduce man-made global warming in 1997 with the Kyoto Protocol. This treaty mandated reductions in fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions. It required a 30% reduction in U.S. fossil-fuel use by 2010, thereby making energy far more expensive. This would drive up costs of every human activity and consumer product, severely retarding economic growth.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimated costs to implement the Kyoto Protocol would run $1 trillion/year — costing 3,200,000 American jobs and doubling electricity prices. Due to its horrific expense and unproven benefits, the Kyoto Protocol was never ratified by the U.S. and over 150 other countries. Canada ratified it but withdrew in 2011 due to its expense.

The Kyoto Protocol’s energy rationing and CO2 taxes will especially impact the poor, directly affecting heating, cooling, and transportation costs. Two billion people lack standard electrical conveniences like refrigerators and lights. Four million children under five die annually of lung infections from air pollution by dung fires. Six million die annually of intestinal diseases from dirty water. The Kyoto Protocol will negatively impact these numbers by making energy much more expensive.

Yet implementing the Kyoto Protocol would only reduce temperatures a negligible 0.2°F by 2050 — meaningless for preventing the supposed catastrophes of global warming. The temperature reduction is so small it would be swallowed by annual temperature fluctuations and would have no significant impact on consequences.

Climatologist Richard Lindzen was the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In May 2001 in testimony before a Senate committee, he said, “Should a catastrophic scenario prove correct, Kyoto will not prevent it. If we view Kyoto as an insurance policy, it is a policy where the premium appears to exceed the potential damages, and where the coverage extends to only a small fraction of the potential damages. Does anyone really want this? I suspect not.”
(Richard S. Lindzen, Testimony before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, 2 May 2001)

The Kyoto Protocol costs five times the expense of providing hygiene and clean water to all who lack them worldwide. Appropriate funding for proper hygiene and clean water would annually prevent 2 million premature deaths and 500 million serious illnesses, says the World Health Organization.

Malaria, malnutrition, heart disease, and cancer are much graver threats than global warming. For billions of people, dirty water and inadequate energy sources are far more significant crises than global warming. Most would actually welcome warming.

Will fears of global warming be used to restrict family size? Britain’s Optimum Population Trust urges limits on family size, claiming that each child’s CO2 output is equivalent to 620 transatlantic flights.

The economic costs of implementing the Kyoto Protocol are staggering, and it provides only negligible temperature reductions while making energy much costlier. Money spent on global warming won’t be available for water, hygiene, and electricity. Which investment is better? Shouldn’t we focus resources on solving problems that we can affect?

It is important for man to be a good steward of the earth. This was part of the responsibility the Great Creator assigned to Adam when He gave him charge over all the earth (Genesis 1:26).

Thus my intent is not to discourage true stewardship. But I think that the measures advocated by the proponents of the global warming theory will cause substantial harm to mankind and to the earth. I believe that good stewards of the earth should sensibly evaluate the claims regarding man-made global warming and the mitigation proposals. I think most will conclude that the claims are false and the mitigation proposals are counter-productive. Thus I think that good stewards should oppose the global warming movement.

Subsequent posts on Global Warming will cover global warming analysis and what the Bible says about global warming.

Questions to Ponder

1. Is it difficult to be open-minded and to consider new information regarding global warming claims?
2. What practical step can you take to alleviate food and water shortages among God’s created image-bearers?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: Make hay while the sun shines.
[May+K hay W+aisle the sun Sh+eye+Ns]
(Click Rebus Puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

This post is part of the Global Warming series.
Read the prequels:
Global Worming?
Candle Warming
Global Warming
Global Warming: Climate Facts

Read the sequel:
Global Warming: Analysis

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday February 20, 2019 A.D.

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | February 13, 2019

Would You Marry a Cave Man?

(4 Minute Read)

Would you accept a Valentine’s Day date with a cave man?
Would you ask a cave woman for a Valentine’s Day date?

Would you marry a cave man or a cave woman?

Were cave men prehistoric?
Did cave men live before Adam?
Were cave men subhuman?

Who was the very first cave man?

Who is history’s most famous cave man?
Hints: His family belittled him; his countrymen exalted him. From mundane beginnings he became a superb athlete, a skillful musician, a prolific poet, and a battle-tested general whose strategic thinking confounded his enemies. Despite powerful opposition, this cave man rose to lead a prosperous nation in peace and war.
Who is he?

Despite the common confused speculations about cave men, these cave man questions have clear and certain answers discussed below.

But first, consider this Rebus puzzle. It has good advice concerning today’s popular opinions about cave men. Can you figure out the phrase that this puzzle represents? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

Prehistoric Cave Men?

Did prehistoric cave men ever exist, as speculated in the evolutionary story of human history?

No! Absolutely NOT! “Prehistoric” means “before history.” Yet written history begins with the first verse of Genesis documenting Yahweh’s creation of the universe 6,000 years ago.
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1)

All of time and all events, including cave men and dinosaurs, occur after Genesis 1:1. Nothing is prehistoric. “Prehistoric” language is bogus! Yahweh alone precedes history.

Pre-Adamic Cave Men?

Some people speculate, “Don’t the two Creation accounts in Genesis conflict? Could a pre-Adamic race of cave men created in Genesis 1 (before Adam’s creation in Genesis 2) resolve this apparent contradiction?”

How would Jesus answer this speculation? I think He would reply wonderingly,
Have you not read, He who created them from the beginning of creation ‘made them male and female’ and said, ‘For this cause…’?
In fact, this was His answer when asked about marriage (Matthew 19:4-5; Mark 10:6-8). Jesus applied quotations from both Genesis 1 and Genesis 2 to the first man and woman, thereby confirming the harmony of the two chapters. Jesus was saying that both chapters speak of Adam and Eve, the first man and woman, fully human. Genesis 1 surveys Creation Week; Genesis 2 focuses on the creation of mankind on Day 6.

Jesus declared the first marriage occurred at the Beginning. This allows no time for a pre-Adamic race. From this first marriage Jesus derived a standard which He applied to all marriages. This shows He believed everyone descended from Adam. Paul explicitly taught this (Acts 17:26).

Subhuman Cave Men?

Many imagine early humans as crude cave men. Evolutionists depict cave men as inarticulate subhuman savages. Genesis, however, paints a radically different portrait of earliest man.

The first man, Adam, demonstrated stunning intellectual skills by single-handedly naming each animal kind on Day 6. Men in Genesis developed agriculture, metallurgy, and musical instruments. They built many cities, the world’s largest pre-20th-Century ship, and a sky-scraping tower.

The evolutionary myth of early man as a grunting, knuckle-dragging, mouth-breathing ignoramus is willfully ignorant fiction without any historical basis. The historical record in Genesis reveals highly intelligent early men who rapidly built advanced civilizations.

Jesus Himself certainly believed early man was fully human. To emphasize that the first pair was fully human, I think Jesus would cite Genesis 1, “God created man (Hebrew ‘adam’) in His own image.” It logically follows that Jesus would believe all descendants of Adam and Eve, including cave men, are fully human.

Cave Men

Did cave men ever exist? Certain “cave man” fossils proved to be complete hoaxes, such as Piltdown Man, Nebraska Man, and Colorado Man. Other fossils were merely apes (Java Man, Peking Man, and Australopithecus). Others, however, were fully human: Neanderthals painted, used musical instruments, and buried their dead. In some fossils, bone diseases had caused deformed skeletons, initially misleading their discoverers.

Cave men are simply men who lived in caves. Many examples exist throughout history.

Southwestern American Indians inhabited caves. General Douglas MacArthur and his troops stayed in caves on Corregidor during World War II. Turkey has dozens of underground cave cities with hundreds of churches and thousands of cave apartments eight levels deep. Some were still used in the 1970s; some have been remodeled as tourist hotels. Men inhabit caves today in Iraq, Afghanistan and many other countries. Australian cave men have their own TVs.

Christianity’s first church may have been a mountain cave overlooking Antioch, the Roman Empire’s third largest city. Here Peter, Paul, and Luke preached. The church’s escape passage involved a honeycomb of tunnels and caves. Believers were first called Christians in Antioch (Acts 11:26).

Who was the first cave man? The first cave man we know of was Lot, Abraham’s nephew. He lived with his daughters in a cave after escaping Sodom 4,000 years ago. (Genesis 19:30)

Caves were frequently burial sites. Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah were all buried in a cave Abraham purchased. Joshua executed five Amorite kings at the end of the Long Day and buried them in a cave. Both Lazarus and Jesus were buried in caves. Many supposed cave man finds are burials, including most Neanderthals.

Caves are great hide-outs. In the days of Gideon and later Saul, Israelites hid from Midianites and Philistines in caves. Obadiah helped 100 prophets hide from Queen Jezebel in caves. Elijah lodged in a cave after his Mt. Carmel victory over the prophets of Baal. Hebrews 11:38 extols cave men “of whom the world was not worthy.

History’s most famous cave man is David, King of Israel. For years while on the run from King Saul, David and his 600-man-band lived in caves in the Judean wilderness. David even wrote Psalm 142 in a cave. Outlaws still use David’s caves today.

These Biblical cave men were hardly feeble-minded brutes. Many were exceptional people. Scripture describes men of faith, including some cave men, with this encomium:
Who by faith conquered kingdoms, performed acts of righteousness, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions, quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made strong, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. (Hebrews 11:33-34)

Cave men are not pre-historic, not pre-Adamic, not sub-human. They are real men who live in caves.

Now let’s answer my title question:
Would you marry a cave man?
Well, why not? Why not marry a cave man? Thousands of women have done so, and have lived in contentment. They simply share a different place of residence.

Abigail in the Bible is an example of a woman who married a cave man. The Bible describes Abigail as an “intelligent and beautiful” woman and a woman of “discernment” (1 Samuel 25:3,32-33). This intelligent, beautiful, and discerning woman married a cave man! She married David while he was living in caves on the run from King Saul (1 Samuel 25:42).

Cave men appear throughout history and even today. All cave men, ancient and modern, are fully human descendants of Adam and Eve.

Questions to Ponder

1. Does one’s abode, clothing, or food affect whether or not one is human? Why or why not?
2. How can you counter the prevailing myth of cave men as brutes rather than as God’s well-fashioned handiwork?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus answer: Don’t believe everything you hear.
[Dough+nt bee+leaf ev+wreath+ink “U” h+ear]
(Click Rebus puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

Soli Deo Gloria.

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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday February 13, 2018 A.D.

By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. (Hebrews 11:3)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | February 6, 2019

Global Warming: Climate Facts

(5 Minute Read)

Weather trends continually fluctuate. Some periods of earth history have been warmer than today; others have been colder. Tropical fossils found worldwide indicate a much warmer climate in the past. Yet as recently as the 1970s, alarmist warnings invoked fears of global cooling and an ensuing ice age!

Instead of swallowing what we constantly hear about global warming, heed the good advice of this Rebus puzzle. Can you figure out what this Rebus puzzle represents in consideration of the global warming issue? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

Climate Facts

Why is ice-covered Greenland called Greenland? Centuries ago Viking farmers named it for its lush verdancy. England, swathed in grape vineyards, used to be renowned for wine. From the 1500s the climate cooled for 300 years, wiping out the vineyards. Stranded by advancing ice packs, Viking settlements disappeared.

Some scientists think earth has warmed 0.67°C and atmospheric CO2 has increased 30% since 1880. This may or may not be true. When evaluating scientific claims, always ask, “How do you know?”

Such conclusions require collection and averaging of huge amounts of data worldwide. This process only estimates earth’s average temperature. It certainly wasn’t being done a hundred years ago. Even today, weather stations are haphazardly located. Most weather thermometers are accurate only to half a degree Celsius, so calculations to hundredths of a degree are meaningless.

Thus the claim that earth has warmed 0.67°C since 1880 is highly doubtful. It certainly has not been scientifically established. Even if true, warming of just over half a degree Celsius in over a hundred years is statistically insignificant.

Rampant guesswork and wild extrapolation permeate global warming claims. Temperature guesses for previous centuries use tree rings, coral reefs, lake sedimentation, stalagmite size, Greenland ice cores, and crop records.

Often “scientific statements” are not statements about discovered facts, but they are imaginative speculations of possible scenarios.

Global warming is not truly global — the southern hemisphere is not warming. Northern hemisphere averages were biased toward warming by the loss of cold-region statistics when thousands of Russian weather stations closed during the USSR’s collapse.

CO2 makes up less than 1% of the atmosphere. Of that tiny fraction, only 3% is man-made. Precise measurements require sensitive detection equipment. A hundred years ago accurate worldwide measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration were not made.

Thus it is only conjecture that earth has warmed 1°F in the last century. It is only speculation that atmospheric CO2 has increased 30%. These claims are only suppositions — not proven facts.

Climate Logic

Even if the global warming hypothesis were true, no proof exists that man caused the warming, and no proof exists that it will be catastrophic. In fact, recent research indicates that solar activity accounts for 0.5°C of warming. Moreover, most warming of the past century could not be from increased CO2 levels because scientists say it occurred before 1940 — when industrial emissions were insignificant.

Al Gore’s movie An Inconvenient Truth claimed global warming will melt polar ice caps, raising oceans 10 feet. Contrary to such hysterical predictions, coastlines will not flood if the arctic ice cap at the North Pole melts, because water has less volume than ice. Moreover, continents and the atmosphere can absorb huge amounts of water.

Homeschool Science Project
When a glass of ice melts, does the glass overflow?
Put several ice cubes in a glass and fill it with water to the very brim. The ice cubes will float, partially above the water surface. Let the glass sit till the ice melts.
Did the water overflow the glass? Why or why not?
What does this say about arctic ice melting and coastline flooding?
Archimedes’ Principle will help you understand your experimental results (see Noah & Archimedes).

Effects of melting on coastlines are impossible to predict accurately. However, a 1992-2002 NASA study found a sea-level rise of 0.05 mm/year from combined Greenland/Antarctica melting — that would be two inches in 1,000 years. Insignificant!

Scripture teaches coastline stability. God told Job, “Who enclosed the sea with doors?…I placed boundaries on it and set a bolt and doors. I said, ‘Thus far you shall come, but no farther; here shall your proud waves stop.” (Job 38:8-11; Proverbs 8:29)

It is also false to blame global warming for severe storms, floods, and droughts. These have always varied with no discernible trend.

Greenhouse Gases

“Greenhouse gases” are gases that trap the sun’s heat just like cars parked in sunshine. CO2 is the most vilified greenhouse gas — the primary one that spurs chatter about cutting emissions. Yet CO2 contributes less than 5% of earth’s greenhouse warmth.

Does increased CO2 cause warming, or does warming increase CO2? Since CO2 increased 30% with only slight warming over the last century and since CO2 changes trail temperature changes, it’s doubtful that CO2 emissions cause global warming. Oceans contain thousands of times more CO2 than the atmosphere. Slight solar warming releases CO2 from oceans into the atmosphere.

Water vapor is by far the dominant greenhouse gas, and it actually stabilizes climate. As temperatures increase, evaporation and cloud cover increase. Clouds reflect sunlight, cooling the planet. With lower temperatures comes less cloud cover, permitting more absorption of solar radiation.

Neptune has been brightening and warming since 1980. The changes closely correlate with solar changes. Mars has also been warming. Man’s CO2 emissions did not cause warming on Mars or Neptune — it was the sun. Earth’s temperature changes correlate more closely to solar activity than to CO2 levels. Solar activity varies over time and causes earth’s temperature variation, including the current slight warming cycle. This is well within historical norms and likely part of a natural cycle.

Subsequent posts on Global Warming will cover the benefits of global warming and the repercussions from mitigation attempts, analysis, and what the Bible says about global warming.

Questions to Ponder

1. Does it make you uncomfortable to question whether or not a commonly-accepted theory has valid evidence and conclusions? How can you grow in courage, confidence, and boldness?
2. What Scripture can you find to share with the next person who is stirred up about global warming?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: Face the facts.
[F+ace the f+axe]
(Click Rebus Puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

This post is part of the Global Warming series.
Read the prequels:
Global Worming?
Candle Warming
Global Warming

Read the sequel:
Global Warming: Benefits & Repercussions

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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday February 6, 2019 A.D.

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | January 30, 2019

Global Warming

(2 Minute Read)

Currently Michigan is much colder than the base camp on Mt. Everest! Southeast Michigan’s projected high today is -2°F with a low of -14°F and wind chills of -40°F. It was -43°F this week in Bemidji, MN and -59°F in Grand Forks, ND — far colder than the South Pole! News reports say this week’s weather is the coldest in a generation.

Where is the global warming that politicians have been nattering about for years? Records for cold are being broken this week going back as far as the 1800s.

Global warming doesn’t sound too bad just now with temperatures in the single digits or colder across much of the U.S.! Even Florida has cold spots as low as 20°F. Americans nationwide would welcome warmer weather.

Yet many have been warning about global warming for years and attributing every natural disaster to its influence. Some, like former U.S. Vice-President Al Gore, think it is an urgent crisis that merits immediate drastic action.

Is global warming a planetary emergency? That’s what Al Gore tearfully told Congress back in March 2007. He hypothesized that global warming is “a crisis that threatens the survival of our civilization and the habitability of earth.” Is this true?

Polls show that 70% of evangelicals think global warming is dangerous. Half favor high expenditures to reduce it. Are these views correct?

Most scientists agree earth warmed some in recent decades, but difficult questions remain unanswered:
1. How much global warming has occurred?
2. How much is man-generated?
3. Is the warming part of a normal cycle of multi-century temperature fluctuations?
4. Will consequences be catastrophic, inconvenient, or beneficial?
5. Will reducing dependence on fossil fuels affect global warming?
6. Will reducing CO2 emissions be detrimental or beneficial?
7. What are the economic and social repercussions?

The loudest voices urge drastic action to avert global warming. They assume that global warming will cause catastrophic climate change, that man is causing it, and that he can prevent it by reducing fossil fuel consumption.

But scientists are split on global warming. At least half disagree that it is worrisome. Over 31,000 American scientists have signed a Global Warming Petition stating that man-generated greenhouse gases will not disrupt earth’s climate and that more atmospheric CO2 is beneficial.

The Global Warming Petition urges the U.S. government to reject global warming proposals and says in part:

The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind. There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth’s atmosphere and disruption of the Earth’s climate. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth.

Man is responsible to the Great Creator to be good stewards of the earth. Claims that man is damaging earth need to be sensibly evaluated. It is important to distinguish legitimate scientific fact from agenda-driven fear-mongering. Don’t give imaginative interpretations the authority of concrete facts.

Here’s something that would often benefit from global warming. Can you figure out what this Rebus puzzle represents? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.


 
Subsequent posts on Global Warming will cover Climate Facts, Benefits and Repercussions, Analysis, and what the Bible says about global warming.

Questions to Ponder

1. When you hear claims about the earth in the news, do you instinctively evaluate each one through the filter of Scripture?
2. How could you use Global Warming as a springboard to affirm the Great Creator and His care for His world?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: Super Bowl Sunday.
[Soup+oar bow+L sun+D+hay]
(Click Rebus Puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

This post is part of the Global Warming series.
Read the prequels:
Global Worming?
Candle Warming

Read the sequels:
Global Warming: Climate Facts
Global Warming: Benefits & Repercussions
Global Warming: Analysis
Global Warming in the Bible

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Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday January 30, 2019 A.D.

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | January 23, 2019

Elijah Does Apologetics

(4 Minute Read)

The BibleScienceGuy Debating Evolution

The most hostile formal debate in which I ever participated was a one-on-one university debate against a biology professor.

We faced off in front of over 100 faculty and grad students, almost all of whom were intensely opposed to my creationist position.

10 Against 1

The Creation-Evolution university debates I’ve done have ranged from 1-on-1 to 5-on-1. I was always the 1. Counting people either pro or con in the debate audiences, the ratios have typically been as large as 10 to 1 or worse against me.

For reports on two of the debates, click these links:
What is Intelligent Design?
Bible vs. Evolution Debate

Ten against one seems overwhelming, but the Bible records the account of a debate in which the numbers were almost 1000 against 1.

However, in a debate the important thing is not the number of people against you, but rather whether you’re on the right side or not.

It’s better to be in a small minority arguing for the truth than with an overwhelming majority arguing for a lie.

It’s better to make a weak argument for truth than a strong argument for error.

1000 Against 1

The Bible records the account of Elijah’s debate in 1 Kings 18. His opponents were 850 prophets of Baal and Asherah, along with the king of Israel himself, King Ahab. Much of the nation of Israel witnessed the contest, as Elijah had requested all Israel to gather at Mt. Carmel, and King Ahab had sent a message to all the sons of Israel (1 Kings 18:19-20).

Most of the people watching the contest were not on the Lord’s side with Elijah. Elijah confronted the crowd about hesitating between two options; their response was only silence (1 Kings 18:21). No one supported him. Elijah was standing alone against King Ahab plus 850 prophets of Baal and Asherah plus a vast number of watching Israelites. Amazing courage!

The debate started with King Ahab’s charge that Elijah was the troubler of Israel (1 Kings 18:17) — presumably because it was at Elijah’s command that a drought had plagued Israel for 3½ years (1 Kings 17:1).

Elijah disputed this charge and identified King Ahab as the one who troubled Israel. This was because Ahab had forsaken the Lord and had followed Baal, the false god of the Canaanites and Phoenicians. Baal had been introduced to Israel by Jezebel, King Ahab’s wicked queen.

Today Christians are often charged with being troublemakers and divisive. Standing for truth will always be divisive, because standing for truth divides truth from error. The real troublers are those like King Ahab who lead people astray into error. Today our country and world are full of troublers. Those who teach and promote the theory of evolution are troublers because they lead people astray from the Great Creator.

What Was the Debate Issue?

Elijah clearly and simply identified the key issue for Israel. Namely, whoever is the True God, follow Him.
And Elijah came near to all the people and said, “How long will you hesitate between two opinions? If the LORD is God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him.” But the people did not answer him a word. (1 Kings 18:21)

What Was Elijah’s Objective?

Elijah had a clear objective in his confrontation with Ahab and the prophets of Baal. He wanted to make clear who was the True God.
Then it came about at the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, that Elijah the prophet came near and said, “O LORD, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, today let it be known that Thou art God in Israel, and that I am Thy servant, and that I have done all these things at Thy word. Answer me, O LORD, answer me, that this people may know that Thou, O LORD, art God, and that Thou hast turned their heart back again.” (1 Kings 18:36-37)

What Was Elijah’s Primary Debating Tool?

Elijah’s basic tool in his debate was reason applied to evidence.
His reasoning was, “If the LORD is God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him.

What could be more reasonable? How can you find fault with this simple, logical argument?

Elijah used evidence to show that Yahweh, and not Baal, was God.

A weak argument for truth is better
than a strong argument for error.

What Was Elijah’s Evidence?

Elijah’s basic piece of evidence that convinced his hearers was a miracle.

First, he showed that Baal was not God by letting the prophets of Baal spend all day calling on Baal to send fire to their altar — with absolutely no effect. Despite spending hours and hours calling on Baal, leaping about their altar, and cutting themselves with swords and lances until the blood gushed out on them, nothing happened. There was absolutely no response from their supposed god Baal. (1 Kings 18:25-29)

Next Elijah saturated his oxen (sacrificial offering), wood, and altar with water. He even filled the encircling trench with water. When he called on the Lord to “let it be known that You are God in Israel,” then immediately the fire of the Lord fell and consumed the burnt offering and the wood and the stones and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench. (1 Kings 18:36,38)

A stupendous display of power from the true God in this impossible challenge impressively proved Elijah’s point!

Aggressive Apologetics

Elijah practiced aggressive apologetics. Here’s the strategy he implemented for his contest on Mt. Carmel. Can you figure out the pertinent phrase that this Rebus puzzle represents? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

What Was the Debate Conclusion?

The crowds heard Elijah’s logical reasoning and saw the True God answer Elijah with miraculous evidence of fire from heaven. The people of Israel were totally convinced.
When all the people saw it, they fell on their faces; and they said, “The Lord, He is God; the Lord, He is God.” (1 Kings 18:39)

In this debate, the losers lost big. The evil prophets were not able to convince anyone in the crowd of their position. Furthermore, Elijah executed his defeated opponents, the false prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:40).

Elijah’s debate on Mt. Carmel was a do-or-die debate to the death. The stakes could not have been higher.

What Is Today’s Debate?

Like Elijah’s debate, the stakes in religious debates are often high. All my debates were life-and-death debates, even though the losers in my debates were not executed. (Not all aspects of Elijah’s debate need to be emulated.) The life-and-death consequences of my debates were not immediately evident, but we were arguing life-and-death issues.

Fundamentally, the debate issue was, Is There A Creator God or Not? Allegiance to the Creator God means eternal life. Denial means eternal death. Following the Great Creator or rebelling against the Great Creator is a life-and-death issue.

Elijah’s example of applying logical reasoning to miraculous evidence is still a good strategy to follow for today’s debates on Is There A Creator God or Not?.

For such debates, I suggest focusing arguments on two major miracles:
1. Creation. The evidence of design in nature shouts the existence of a Creator.
That which is known about God is evident within men; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that men are without excuse. (Romans 1:19-20)
See Evidence for God – Design for the Design Argument for the existence of the Creator.
Click Evidence for God for a list of the Argument from Design posts.

2. The Resurrection of Jesus
The New Testament apostles based their Gospel message on the Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. See for example, one of the Apostle Paul’s reasonings: 1 Corinthians 15:1-24.
See History’s One-Two Punch for a defense of the Resurrection.

Apologetics is the defense of the Christian faith using evidence, reason, and logic. The Apostle Peter places the responsibility to do this with gentleness and reverence on every Christian.
Sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence. (1 Peter 3:15)

Questions to Ponder

1. Have you ever stood alone to defend a principle or a truth? Tell us about it.
2. What measures in defense of truth could make an impression on a present-day skeptic?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: The best defense is a good offense.
[The best “D”+fence is egg+hood off+fence]
(Click Rebus Puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

This is the first post in the series on Apologists in the Bible.
Read the sequel:
Peter Does Apologetics (coming soon . . .)

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Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday January 23, 2019 A.D.

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | January 16, 2019

Why Does Salt Melt Ice?

(3 Minute Read)

Niagara’s Bridal Veil Falls in Winter

Ice melts if the temperature rises above 32°F. Why does ice melt if you throw salt on it, even if the temperature is as low as 15°F? What happens if you use sugar, flour, ashes, or sand instead?

Why Does Salt Melt Ice?

By the design of the Great Creator, water freezes and ice melts at 32°F. At this temperature, an icy road usually has a thin layer of water molecules interacting with the ice molecules beneath. The ice is freezing the water at the same rate the water is melting the ice. When salt is added, it lowers the water’s freezing point. The result is that the ice can’t freeze the water, but the water continues to melt the ice, reducing the ice on the road.

How does salt lower the freezing point of water? By the design of the Great Creator, when dissolved in water, salt (NaCl) splits into sodium and chlorine ions which form weak chemical bonds with water molecules (H2O). This solution stays liquid at much lower temperatures than pure water because the sodium and chlorine ions “get in the way” and impede crystallization of the water molecules into ice because the ions have bonded with water molecules.

Salt is sprinkled over winter roads because it lowers the freezing point of water (32°F) or the melting point of ice (32°F) thereby reducing the slippery ice hazard. It’s most effective to salt roads close to 32°F when there is water with the ice. Over 20 million tons of salt are used every year to melt snow and ice.

BibleScienceGuy at our campsite’s picnic table loaded with a foot of snow.

The more salt that is dissolved in water, the more it lowers the freezing point (impedes crystallization) until the water is saturated with salt. Under lab conditions, this minimum temperature is –6°F. On the street, salt can melt ice only down to about 15°F. There is no point in salting roads below 15°F.

Common table salt (NaCl) isn’t the only salt that can be used. Other salts are more effective (but more expensive) in lowering the melting point of ice. For example, calcium chloride (CaCl2) lowers it to –20°F.

Calcium chloride melts ice better than table salt because it breaks down into three ions instead of two: one calcium ion and two chlorine ions. This results in more ions bonding to water molecules and impeding the crystallization of the water molecules into ice.

When salt water freezes, the salt moves to the surface. Icebergs are free of salt below the surface, despite floating in salty oceans. Thus icebergs are a potential source of fresh water. Some have considered towing icebergs to alleviate water shortages.

Homeschool Science Project

Figure out what sugar, flour, ashes, and sand do to the freezing point of water.

Experiment by putting water in a compartment of an ice cube tray and sugar water solutions of varying concentrations in other compartments. Use flour, sand, and ashes with water in the remaining tray compartments. Check every 15 minutes to observe the freezing rates. Explain your results.
(Hint: Do popsicles freeze faster or slower than ice in your freezer?)

For another experiment, take a tray of ice cubes. On top of separate cubes in the tray put salt, sugar, flour, sand, and ashes. Return the tray of frozen cubes to the freezer. Put a thermometer in the freezer so you’ll know the temperature. Check periodically to see which additives cause the most melting.

Report and explain your results in the comments below.

Making ice cream in a zip-lock bag

Ice Cream in a Baggie

Has the “ice cream urge” ever hit you when the freezer was empty and you couldn’t bring yourself to drive to the store?

Do your children sometimes beg for ice cream at the most inconvenient times?

Here’s a solution to this urgent problem that applies what we’ve learned about ice and salt.

Make your own double-scoop of flavorful ice cream with these four simple steps in only 10-15 minutes!

  1. Put 1/4 cup sugar, 1/2 cup milk, 1/2 cup whipping cream, 1/4 teaspoon vanilla in a quart zip-lock bag with desired flavorings (strawberries, chocolate chips, cherries, crumbled oreos, etc). Double-bag and seal.
  2. Fill a gallon zip-lock bag 1/3 full of ice. Add a cup of salt.
  3. Place the sealed quart bag into the gallon bag and seal.
  4. Shake the gallon bag gently for 10-15 minutes until the ice cream is firm.

Heat energy from the mix melts the ice, thereby cooling the cream mix as its heat is used to melt the ice. The cream mix freezes (at a lower temperature than water) because the ice-salt mixture has a lower freezing/melting point than pure ice.

Raise the Freezing Point of Water

It’s easy to lower the freezing point of water by adding salt. It’s not so easy to do the reverse — raise the freezing point of water.

Nobody has figured out how to make water freeze at temperatures above 32°F. In fact, many scientists think it cannot be done. This and the science behind it could be another fruitful research topic for a Nobel Prize — like figuring out why ice is slippery.

If somebody could figure out how to raise the freezing point of water economically, it could be a very useful energy-saving device in a variety of contexts. For example, one could make ice in refrigerators with less energy.

Questions to Ponder

1. When winter’s snow and ice frustrate your plans, how do you react? Does your response honor the Great Creator?
2. How does winter weather remind you of the Great Creator?
3. In what ways could raising the freezing point of water be useful?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom.

Read the prequel:
Why Is Ice Slippery?

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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday January 16, 2019 A.D.

God thunders with His voice wondrously,
Doing great things which we cannot comprehend.
For to the snow He says, “Fall on the earth,”
And to the downpour and the rain, “Be strong.”
He seals the hand of every man,
That all men may know His work.

(Job 37:5-7)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | January 9, 2019

Little Idea, Epic Result

(3 Minute Read. With video.)

Apollo 8 Commemorative Patch
Apollo 8 flies above the lunar surface as it slingshots around the Moon and sees the Earth rise. The patch includes “In the beginning God…” which the crew read to the world from Genesis 1.

A seemingly insignificant idea, trivial choice, or minor event can have far-reaching consequences.

Such was the case 50 years ago when the Apollo 8 astronauts, Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, and Bill Anders, celebrated Christmas in Space as they orbited the moon.

Apollo 8 was a very ambitious and very dangerous mission. NASA told Borman’s wife that the chances the crew would return safely were “50-50.” One prominent critic of the mission was British radio astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell, the director of the Jodrell Bank radio observatory, who begged NASA not to risk the lives of three astronauts.

Robert Kurson, author of Rocket Men: The Daring Odyssey of Apollo 8 and the Astronauts Who Made Man’s First Journey to the Moon, said, “Christmas and the moon were at risk if this mission failed. That’s why when you talk to experts or other Apollo astronauts who were around they speak in reverential tones about Apollo 8 – the risk was almost incalculable. If you talk to many astronauts of the time, many of them will tell you that Apollo 8 was the single most important, daring, and dangerous mission NASA ever flew.”

Yet Apollo 8 was a crucial step on the way to Apollo 11 landing men on the moon seven months later. It was a huge jump ahead in the moon race with Russia. Apollo 8 was the first time in known history that men traveled beyond Earth’s orbit, and they set a new world speed record of 24,200 mph. Its astronauts were the first men in known history to orbit the moon. Apollo 8 was the first manned flight launched into space by the huge 36-story-tall Saturn V rocket, the launch vehicle for all the following Apollo missions and for Skylab 1.

Here is NOVA’s movie Apollo’s Daring Mission (NOVA season 45, episode 17) in which Apollo 8 astronauts and engineers tell the inside story of the mission, fifty years later. They report the new technology and engineering feats that made Apollo 8’s trip to the moon possible. (Released December 26, 2018. 53:40)


 
Because of the significance of the mission, NASA had told the three Apollo 8 astronauts to “say something appropriate” for their Christmas Eve broadcast from the moon. No other instruction or specification was given.

But the astronauts couldn’t think of what to say. They and their three wives struggled for weeks trying to think of something without success. They considered contemporizing The Night Before Christmas or using Jingle Bells, but nothing they thought of seemed appropriate. Finally a friend of Apollo 8 Commander Frank Borman asked veteran war correspondent and newspaperman Joe Layton for help. As Layton wrestled with how to answer, his wife Christine, a former French resistance fighter, suggested the astronauts read the opening verses of Genesis.

Christine Layton
Suggested Moon reading from Genesis

This spur of the moment, seemingly inconsequential suggestion by Christine Layton — walking by her husband as he crumpled sheet after sheet of paper with discarded ideas — turned out to have epic consequences.

Anders, Lovell, and Borman read the first ten verses of Genesis to conclude their live TV broadcast from lunar orbit. At the time it was the most watched television broadcast in known history, estimated at a billion people – a quarter of the world’s population.

Transcripts and recordings of Genesis 1:1-10 (see Christmas in Space for a video) have reverberated across the decades as the historic expedition is commemorated. On each significant anniversary of Apollo 8, even the most secular publications reproduce these powerful Genesis verses which exalt the Creator.

When Christine Layton applied her creative energy to a question that interested her husband, her wildest imagination could not have predicted the worldwide impact, echoing year after year for half a century!

A billion people, including innumerable communists, atheists, and pagans, heard these three elite American astronauts testify to the creation of the universe by the God of the Bible, Yahweh, the Great Creator.

Apollo 8 Crew
Frank Borman, Bill Anders, Jim Lovell

These three astronauts were highly intelligent, college educated, extremely accomplished men who were esteemed worldwide. Eternity alone will reveal the extent to which their clear, bold words changed lives. And it was all started by Christine Layton’s simple suggestion.

We never know the extent to which our daily choices and actions will influence history. Some may mushroom worldwide down through the centuries. It’s important to consistently obey the Word and follow Jesus Christ. Both obedience and disobedience have significant consequences.

New Year Message

I wish all the readers of the Bible-Science Guy Blog a Blessed 2019 as you seek to serve and glorify the Great Creator in 2019!
But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint. (Isaiah 40:31)

Here is a Rebus puzzle message from Mark Twain’s 1874 calling card that I’d like to send my readers. Can you figure out the appropriate phrase that this puzzle represents? Try to solve the puzzle before you look at the answer below.

Questions to Ponder

1. The astronauts’ choice to ride the Saturn V rocket to the moon was scary; yet it produced an enduring witness to the Great Creator. What Biblical choice in your life seems scary or risky? Will you trust God and act on it?
2. What “little idea” to bless another person has crossed your mind recently? Will you act on it?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Rebus Puzzle Answer: I Wish You All A Happy New Year.
(Click Rebus puzzles for links to blog articles with a Rebus puzzle.)

For Christ and His Kingdom.

Read the prequel:
Christmas in Space

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday January 9, 2019 A.D.

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)

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