Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | September 28, 2022

Fudging with Comets

(4 Minute Read. 28Sep2022)

1910 Halley’s Comet
Photo taken May 29, 1910
at Yerkes Observatory, WI

Comets have amazed, intrigued, and even scared sky watchers for millenia.

What is the purpose of comets in the Solar System?

From where do comets come? Have some pet theories about comet origins been fudged or misrepresented?

Comet Lifespans

As of November 2021 there were 4,584 known comets. Astronomers can estimate a comet’s longevity based on its orbital period (the time it takes to orbit the sun) and on how much mass it loses on each orbit.

Comets are fragile, and longevity calculations indicate most cannot last more than about 10,000 years. This is because every time a comet swings around the sun, part of its mass is burned off. For example, in the 1986 appearance of Halley’s Comet, the Giotto Probe determined that Halley’s nucleus weighed 240 billion tons and was losing matter at the rate of 17.6 tons per second. The 20th century witnessed the complete destruction of 10 comets in this manner.

If most comets last no more than 10,000 years, why do we still see comets if the Solar System is billions of years old?

Let’s make some generous estimates to get upper bounds on comet lifespans to compare with evolutionists’ supposed age of the Solar System. Generally astronomers think a comet can last no more than 100 orbits around the sun. Suppose we liberally estimate a comet’s life to be 1,000 orbits. In that case, short-period comets (orbits under 200 years) cannot last more than 200,000 years.

It’s often very difficult to calculate orbital periods for long-period comets (having periods over 200 years), but almost all have estimated periods of under 100,000 years. Thus long-period comets should be gone within 100 million years.

But evolutionist scientists believe the Solar System is 4.6 billion years old — almost 50 times the liberally estimated maximum lifespan of any comet.

So why do we still see comets? By evolutionary numbers they should all be long gone. Yet over 4,500 comets are still seen today. The multitude of visible comets is clear evidence that the Solar System is not billions of years old.

Where Do Comets Originate?

This obvious conclusion above does not fit the evolutionary story line. Evolution requires enormous lengths of time.

In order to get around this problem, in 1950 Dutch astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort proposed the existence of a cloud of billions of comets surrounding the Solar System. He suggested that this conjectured cloud occasionally ejected new comets into orbit around the sun.

This imaginary cloud is now called the Oort Cloud. It supposedly supposedly extends from 2,000 AU to 200,000 AU beyond the sun, where one AU (Astronomical Unit) is the distance from the earth to the sun, about 93 million miles. Thus the Oort Cloud supposedly extends out to 3.2 light-years from the sun — almost to Proxima Centauri, the nearest star about 4.2 light-years away.

The Oort Cloud concept is almost universally believed and assertively taught within astronomy. It is merely dogmatic belief; the Oort Cloud has never been observed. The Oort Cloud is completely speculative. Jan Hendrik Oort simply made it up.

Even the late Cornell astronomy professor Carl Sagan (1934-1996), a vigorous popularizer of cosmic evolution, said this in chapter 11 of his 1985 book Comet:
“Many scientific papers are written each year about the Oort cloud, its properties, its origin, its evolution. Yet there is not a shred of direct observational evidence for its existence.”

An article on the Oort Cloud in New Scientist said,
“Indeed, the need for a source for ‘long period’ comets is the only evidence we have for the Oort Cloud’s existence, and that is circumstantial to say the least.”
(Stuart Clark, The Oort cloud surrounds our solar system – why can’t we see it?, New Scientist, 16 March 2016.)

“Need” is not evidence.

The Oort Cloud is simply a fudge factor introduced to rescue cosmic evolution from the extremely inconvenient existence of comets. It is an attempt to explain away the obvious relatively young age of the Solar System in order to preserve belief in its existence apart from the Great Creator.

Physicist Dr. Don DeYoung wrote,
“The existence of the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud of comets has not been verified. Perhaps there is an alternative: the presence of comets may be evidence that the solar system is not as old as is often assumed.
(DeYoung, Astronomy and the Bible, 2000, pp. 49-50.)

Astronomer Dr. Danny Faulkner wrote,
“Since it cannot be detected, the Oort cloud is not a scientific concept. This is not bad science, but non-science masquerading as science. The existence of comets is good evidence that the solar system is only a few thousand years old,.“
(Faulkner, “More Problems for the Oort Comet Cloud“, Aug 2001.)

The Oort Cloud has never been observed. There is no evidence that it exists, yet it is dogmatically taught. It is completely speculative. The only reason for its conjectured existence is to “rescue” belief in an evolutionary history of the universe. This amounts to fudging evidence.

Belief in the Biblical history of the universe has no need of the Oort Cloud. Comets easily survive the thousands of years since God created all of time, space, and everything in it.

Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman is reported to have said this:
“I would rather have questions that can’t be answered than answers that can’t be questioned.”

What is the origin of comets? That may be a question that can’t be answered apart from the ingenious creativity of the Great Creator Who placed them in the heavens. The Oort Cloud is an answer that should be questioned and challenged.

The existence of comets, no matter how fragile and short-lived, is no problem for the Biblical creationist. The Great Creator, the Lord God of the Bible, made His universe with great diversity, beauty, and complexity for His own glory. He created comets. The Oort Cloud pretense is an insult to the Great Creator.

Why did Yahweh put comets in His Solar System? Are they some of His fingerprints? Are they marks to estimate age? What do you think?

Questions to Ponder

1. How do comets portray the magnificence of their Great Creator?
2. Can you find a stunning comet photo to remind you of this giant glitch in the theory of cosmic evolution?

Share your thoughts on this question in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom.
Alere Flammam Veritatis.
Soli Deo Gloria.

Read the prequels:
Curious Comets
Halley’s Comet
Halley’s Surprise

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Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday September 28, 2022 A.D.

Great is the Lord, and highly to be praised,
And His greatness is unsearchable.
One generation shall praise Your works to another,
And shall declare Your mighty acts.
On the glorious splendor of Your majesty
And on Your wonderful works, I will meditate.
(Psalm 145:3-5)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | September 21, 2022

Halley’s Surprise

(3 Minute Read. 21Sep2022)

Orbit Animation of Halley’s Comet
Relative to planetary orbits for
Neptune to Mercury (Click to enlarge)

Have you heard of the word widdershins? What about deosil?

These words were once common and very useful words. And they are directly connected to Halley’s orbit.

The Surprising Orbit of Halley’s Comet

Halley’s Comet is currently in orbit out beyond Neptune and approaching its greatest distance from the sun. Halley’s orbit around the sun lasts on average about 76 years. Thus 1 Halley-year = 76 Earth-years.

Halley’s orbit is a long narrow oval with its longest diameter 35.5 AU, where one AU (Astronomical Unit) is the distance from the earth to the sun, about 93 million miles.
The width of Halley’s orbit oval is 9.1 AU, so Halley’s orbit is about four times as long as it is wide.

The plane of Halley’s orbit is tilted at an angle of 18 degrees to the plane of the ecliptic, which is the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun. Halley is on the southern side of this plane for 98% of the time. Only as the comet nears the sun does it zip over onto the north side of the ecliptic and then back down to the south side.

Earth orbits the Sun in a counterclockwise direction. In fact, most Solar System objects, including all the planets, orbit the sun counterclockwise when viewed from above the sun’s north pole. But Halley’s Comet is very unusual in that it has retrograde orbital motion. Halley orbits the sun clockwise, in the opposite orbital direction from the planets.

Due to its retrograde orbit, Halley’s Comet has an unusually high velocity relative to the earth at 157,800 mph. This is because as Halley passes the earth it is going in the opposite direction from the earth. This is one of the very highest relative velocities of any object in the Solar System.

If you find “clockwise” and “counterclockwise” confusing due to a lifetime of digital clocks, then the orbital direction of Halley’s Comet is handy. For tools, for sports, or for design use, you can simply refer to Halley’s orbit. Use “Halleywise” and “counter-Halley” to remember the “clockwise” and “counterclockwise” directions respectively. For example, to remember the direction to unscrew something, just think, “Turn it counter-Halley,” (the opposite way Halley orbits).

Halley’s retrograde orbital motion creates insuperable difficulties for those who believe in an evolutionary development of the Solar System. Evolutionary theories can’t account for inconsistent orbits among comets. This is one of the hushed-up difficulties with Big Bang theories.

But this is not problematic for those who believe the Almighty spoke the universe into existence and created it with tremendous diversity, beauty, and complexity from the very beginning.
By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their host. . . . For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast.
(Psalm 33:6,9)

Counter-Halley Arrow

Widdershins and Deosil

Widdershins means to go in a direction opposite to the apparent course of the sun as viewed from Earth’s Northern Hemisphere. That is, widdershins means to go counter-clockwise, to go lefthandwise, to walk around an object by always keeping it on the left. Widdershins simply means counter-Halley.

Deosil is the opposite of widdershins. It means sunwise or clockwise or Halleywise.

The first documented use of widdershins was in 1513 AD in a translation of the Aeneid. This word was in common use even as late as the early 1800s when household clocks were still rare. By 1900 most homes had a clock, so clockwise and counterclockwise were used and understood.

If clockwise and counterclockwise are confusing to you today due to the widespread use of digital clocks, here are some memory hooks. Most screws, locks, valves, and faucets are closed by turning Halleywise (clockwise). Base runners in baseball, Olympic track events, and NASCAR racing all go counter-Halley, which is the same as widdershins or counterclockwise.

I first came across the word widdershins in mystery writer Dorothy Sayers’ (1893–1957) books. In her 1934 novel The Nine Tailors Sayers wrote of her detective Lord Peter Wimsey, “As he emerged [from the church] into the night . . . he turned to his right, knowing that it is unlucky to walk about a church widdershins.”

In history and in literature, the “against the sun” (counterclockwise or counter-Halley) direction of movement was long shunned as unlucky. In Britain it was thought especially unlucky to walk around a church counterclockwise (widdershins or counter-Halley).

How tragic that a person near a church should give even a moment’s thought to the devilish concept of luck! Any follower of Jesus is in His direct care, and it insults the Savior to be nervous that any superstitious triviality could disrupt that Almighty hand upon one’s life.

Followers of Christ should not ascribe events to luck. It’s an insult to the Almighty who works all things according to the counsel of His will (Ephesians 1:11).

Christians should demonstrate attitudes of gratitude and faith and should eschew superstition. Trust and thanksgiving, not luck, should be the default mode of thinking.
In everything give thanks; for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus.
(1 Thessalonians 5:18)
Trust in the Lord with all your heart and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight. (Proverbs 3:5-6)

See my blog article No Luck At All for more on the subject of luck.

Where do comets come from? There are over 4500 known comets. Mainstream science is neither scientific nor straightforward when addressing their origin. This is the subject of the sequel blog article, Fudging with Comets.

The Great Creator, the Lord God of the Bible, made His universe with great diversity, beauty, and complexity for His own glory. He created the comets.

Questions to Ponder

1. Why did God create comets? What could be their purpose?
2. Notwithstanding my earlier jest, what else besides Halley can help you remember the direction of “clockwise”?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom.
Alere Flammam Veritatis.
Soli Deo Gloria.

Read the prequels:
Curious Comets
Halley’s Comet

Read the sequel:
Fudging with Comets coming soon . . .

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday September 21, 2022 A.D.

Great is the Lord, and highly to be praised,
And His greatness is unsearchable.
One generation shall praise Your works to another,
And shall declare Your mighty acts.
On the glorious splendor of Your majesty
And on Your wonderful works, I will meditate.
(Psalm 145:3-5)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | September 14, 2022

Halley’s Comet

(3 Minute Read. 14Sep2022)

Halley’s Comet
March 1986 NASA Photo from Easter Island

Why are there comets in the Solar System? Nobody really knows!
What is their purpose? Nobody really knows!
Only the Great Creator Who placed them in the heavens knows.

The Most Famous Comet

Did you see history’s most famous comet when it last appeared in 1986? Halley’s Comet should next appear in 2061.

The comet is named after the English astronomer Edmund Halley (1656-1742) whose name rhymes with “valley.” He concluded that reports of comets appearing in 1531, 1607, and 1682 were actually all reports of the same comet because all three had the same orbital parameters. He successfully predicted the comet’s return in 1758.

Halley’s orbit is a very long thin oval with its longest diameter 35.5 AU, where one AU (Astronomical Unit) is the distance from the earth to the sun, about 93 million miles. Halley is currently in orbit out beyond Neptune and Pluto and approaching its aphelion point, the orbit point furthest from the sun, which Halley will reach in December 2023.

Halley’s orbit around the sun lasts on average about 76 years. Due to the gravitational effects of planets, the comet’s orbital period ranges from 74 to 79 years. Halley is the only comet that is regularly visible to the naked eye.

While aloft, the Space Shuttle Challenger was scheduled to study Halley’s Comet on its 1986 appearance. But this opportunity to study Halley at close hand was lost when Challenger exploded less than two minutes after launch on its tenth flight on January 28, 1986.

The comet’s first certain observation was in 240 BC by Chinese astronomers who recorded its appearance in official chronicles. Thirty distinct appearances of the comet have been recorded by various civilizations.

Some astronomers and theologians have suggested that Halley’s appearance in 12 BC was the Star of Bethlehem that Matthew reports appeared at the birth of Jesus Christ (Matthew 2:1-11). But 12 BC is too early a date for Jesus’ birth.

Adoration of the Magi
Star of Bethlehem top center
modeled on reddish Halley’s Comet

Halley’s 1301 AD appearance was seen by Italian painter Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337). He used it as a model for the Star of Bethlehem in his 1305 painting Adoration of the Magi. Chinese astronomers compared the brilliance of Halley’s 1301 appearance to Procyon, one of the brightest stars in the night sky. But the luminous Star of Bethlehem was not Halley’s Comet.

The Giotto Probe, named for the artist, was an unmanned spacecraft designed to study Halley’s 1986 appearance. It was launched by the European Space Agency and was the first spacecraft to make close up observations of a comet, coming within 370 miles of Halley’s nucleus in March 1986.

Halley’s peanut-shaped nucleus measures about 9 miles long with a diameter of 5 miles. But its tail, always pointing away from the sun, extends more than 62 million miles into space, about two-thirds of the distance between the earth and the sun.

Giotto determined that Halley’s nucleus weighs 240 billion tons and was ejecting matter at the rate of 17.6 tons per second.

Satellite flyby photos of Halley show the surface has complex topography with hills, mountains, ridges, depressions, and a crater.

Halley is an example of a short-period comet. Such comets have orbital periods of less than 200 years. The orbit of Halley’s Comet is an extremely elongated oval. In contrast, Earth’s orbit is nearly circular.

Mark Twain helped make Halley’s Comet famous through its connection with his birth and death. He was born November 30, 1835, two weeks after Halley’s Comet passed the earth.

In Twain’s 1909 autobiography he wrote,
“I came in with Halley’s Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don’t go out with Halley’s Comet. The Almighty has said, no doubt: ‘Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.’”

Twain’s hope was fulfilled. He died of a heart attack at home on April 21, 1910, one day after the comet’s closest approach to Earth.

The Eta Aquarids meteor shower in May and the Orionids meteor shower in October result from the earth passing through debris streams from Halley’s Comet.

Something quite mysterious, surprising, and highly unusual about Halley’s Comet will be revealed in next week’s sequel blog article. Don’t miss Halley’s Surprise to learn about an intriguing aspect of Halley.

The Great Creator, the Lord God of the Bible, made His universe with great diversity, beauty, and complexity for His own glory. He created the comets.

Questions to Ponder

1. Why did God create comets? What could be their purpose?
2. Will you be watching for Halley’s next appearance in July 2061? If you have passed out of earthly life by then, do you know for sure where you will be?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom.
Alere Flammam Veritatis.
Soli Deo Gloria.

Read the prequel:
Curious Comets

Read the sequel:
Halley’s Surprise

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday September 14, 2022 A.D.

Great is the Lord, and highly to be praised,
And His greatness is unsearchable.
One generation shall praise Your works to another,
And shall declare Your mighty acts.
On the glorious splendor of Your majesty
And on Your wonderful works, I will meditate.
(Psalm 145:3-5)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | September 7, 2022

Curious Comets

(2 Minute Read. 7Sep2022)

Comet Hale-Bopp
April 1997

Comets are intriguing and amazing wonders of the Solar System. Nobody knows why comets exist or how they exist – other than that they result from the Great Creator‘s ingenious creativity.

What Are Comets?

Comets are dirty lumps of frozen gases, dust, and rock orbiting the sun. The main clump, called the nucleus, ranges from one mile to forty miles in diameter, although most nuclei are only about a mile in diameter.

The tail of a comet results from the melting action of the sun as the comet swings around the sun. The tail consists of dust and gas trailing behind the comet for millions of miles. With each orbit around the sun, a comet loses mass, and its nucleus gets smaller.

Wondrous Comets

Comet Encke, discovered in 1786, has the shortest orbital period of any known comet. It orbits the sun every 3.3 years and will next appear in October 2023. Its nucleus is about 3 miles across.

As the earth orbits around the sun, when the earth crosses a comet tail, we see meteors. The Perseids meteor shower each August originates from Comet Swift-Tuttle, which was independently discovered in 1862 by Lewis Swift and Horace Tuttle. Its nucleus is 16 miles across with an orbital period of 133 years. Swift-Tuttle last swung around the Sun in 1992 and will return again in 2125.

Comet Holmes, discovered in 1892, created a sensation in October 2007 when it suddenly became about half a million times brighter than normal. It briefly became the largest object in the Solar System when its coma, the thin surrounding envelope of dust and gas, expanded to a diameter greater than that of the Sun. The cause of the increased brightness and size is completely unknown. Astronomers have no idea what caused it. Could something like this have been the Star of Bethlehem that appeared at the birth of Jesus Christ (Matthew 2:1-11)?

Comet Holmes is a short-period comet with orbital period about 7 years. Comets with orbital periods under 200 years are termed short-period. The nucleus of Comet Holmes is about 2 miles across, and the longest diameter of its orbit is 7.2 AU, where one AU (Astronomical Unit) is the distance from the earth to the sun, about 93 million miles.

The Great Daylight Comet of 1910 appeared in January 1910. It was so bright that it outshone the planet Venus. Its appearance was a big surprise, as no one had discovered it nor expected it. It is a long-period comet with orbital period about 9,200 years. Its highly elliptical orbit has its longest diameter 880 AU.

In 1997 I myself saw the Hale-Bopp Comet, discovered by Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp independently in 1995 before it was visible to the naked eye. But I will never see Hale-Bopp again in this life. It is an example of a long-period comet with an orbital period of 2,534 years. It is a large comet with a nucleus about 37 miles in diameter.

Hale-Bopp was one of the brightest comets ever. It was visible to the naked eye for over 18 months, more than twice as long as any previous comet. Another suprising fact about Hale-Bopp is that its orbit is almost perpendicular to the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun.

Why did Yahweh put comets in His Solar System? Are they some of His fingerprints? Do their surprising characteristics glorify the Great Creator?

O Lord how manifold are Thy works! In wisdom Thou hast made them all!
(Psalm 104:24)

The next two blog articles will reveal something remarkably surprising about the most famous of the Great Creator’s intriguing comets.

Questions to Ponder

1. Why do humans find comets so fascinating?
2. What is your guess about why God created comets? What is their purpose?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom.
Alere Flammam Veritatis.
Soli Deo Gloria.

Read the sequels:
Halley’s Comet
Halley’s Surprise

Fudging with Comets coming soon . . .

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday September 7, 2022 A.D.

Great is the Lord, and highly to be praised,
And His greatness is unsearchable.
One generation shall praise Your works to another,
And shall declare Your mighty acts.
On the glorious splendor of Your majesty
And on Your wonderful works, I will meditate.
(Psalm 145:3-5)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 31, 2022

How Could Noah Love a God Who Killed So Many People?

(4 Minute Read. 31Aug2022)

A year and 10 days after the onset of the Flood, the flood waters had drained away and the earth had dried out sufficiently for Noah to leave the Ark (Genesis 7:11; 8:14-18).

Noah After the Flood

Noah Leaving the Ark After the Flood


 
You may picture Noah leading his family out of the Ark. But some think that the Bible says Noah was the fourth person to leave the Ark.
And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons’ wives with him.
(Genesis 8:18 KJV)

Upon leaving the Ark, Noah built an altar and offered burnt offerings to the Lord in worship.

People Drowning Outside Noah’s Ark

How could Noah worship a God who had just drowned the entire population of the world? Some of those killed were probably friends and relatives of Noah and his family.

How could Noah love and serve a God who had slain so many people? Possibly trillions of people were drowned and killed in the Flood.

Here are some thoughts to consider regarding this thorny issue.

First, the God who sent the drowning flood is the Great Creator. He made and rules the entire universe. It is His — He owns it. He has the right to do with it whatever He pleases. He is not accountable to anyone for His decisions and actions. God’s character, God’s choices, and God’s acts are the source, the standard, and the definition of what is right, what is just, and what is good!

Imagine a skilled carpenter who makes a beautiful wooden cabinet. Does he not have the right to burn it to ashes with fire?

The Apostle Paul expressed the idea in these words:
What shall we say then? There is no injustice with God, is there? May it never be! . . . Who are you, O man, who answers back to God? The thing molded will not say to the molder, “Why did you make me like this,” will it? Or does not the potter have a right over the clay, to make from the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for common use? What if God, although willing to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction? And He did so to make known the riches of His glory upon vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory. (Romans 9:14,20-23)

Who are you, O man, to judge and condemn the Great Creator?

Second, when people raise this issue, they usually think in terms of those who were drowned in the Flood as being relatively innocent. But they were evil and wicked and deserving of the judgment of God.
Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. . . . Now the earth was corrupt in the sight of God, and the earth was filled with violence. God looked on the earth, and behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. (Genesis 6:5,11-13)

The Deluge by Gustave Doré (1866)

Noah was a preacher of righteousness to his world (2 Peter 2:5). Yet no one listened to his words. No one believed him.

The Ark had room for plenty of people, but no one followed Noah into the Ark. No one repented of evil and accepted Noah’s offer of righteous living and salvation.

God’s judgment could have been averted by listening to Noah. Drowning could have been avoided by heeding Noah’s message.

A good illustration of this is the Assyrian city of Nineveh in the early 8th century BC. God’s announced mass destruction of wicked Nineveh was halted by repentance when the king of Nineveh repented upon hearing Jonah’s message. The remorseful king proclaimed:
“In Nineveh by the decree of the king and his nobles: Do not let man, beast, herd, or flock taste a thing. Do not let them eat or drink water. But both man and beast must be covered with sackcloth; and let men call on God earnestly that each may turn from his wicked way and from the violence which is in his hands. Who knows, God may turn and relent and withdraw His burning anger so that we will not perish.”
When God saw their deeds, that they turned from their wicked way, then God relented concerning the calamity which He had declared He would bring upon them. And He did not do it.
(Jonah 3:7-10)

Noah’s preaching was one final merciful call of God before the judgment of God fell upon a sin-soaked world.

Third, it was Noah‘s responsibility and duty to worship and serve his Creator — regardless of the circumstances. He appropriately offered worship and thanks to the Great Creator for salvation from the Flood.

Noah worshiped the God who IS, not a god of his own desires, conceptions, or inclinations.

Character of the God Who Slays

Often the hand-wringing over the fate of the world in Noah’s Flood overlooks the character of God who showed grace and mercy to Noah and his family. God both judges evil and shows mercy. Both are abundantly evident in the account of Noah’s Flood. God judged the evil of men and showed mercy to Noah.
Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord. Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his time; Noah walked with God. (Genesis 6:8-9)

God told Noah how to build the Ark to preserve his family through the Flood. God gave Noah time to build the Ark, time to gather food, and time to load supplies and animals before unleashing the Flood.

When King David faced God’s judgment for his own sin of pride in numbering his army, David exemplified the right attitude. With fatal judgment at hand, David considered the character of the Great Creator and chose God‘s direct hand of judgment over that of man, for “His mercies are very great,” said David. (1 Chronicles 21:13)

Then, in the midst of the slaughter, David revered, respected, and worshiped Yahweh. With significant labor and expense he was active to honor the Great Creator and lift up His name — concurrent with witnessing Yahweh’s awe-inspiring fierce judgment.
(1 Chronicles 21:16-27)

God’s Orders

The Great Creator, the Ruler and Sustainer of the universe, commands men to repent, worship, and serve Him.
Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved. (Acts 16:31)

Man’s choice is either to submit to his Great Creator or to rebel against Him and suffer judgment. The world of Noah’s day chose to rebel. They were judged by God with the Flood.

May we all learn from Noah’s day and submit ourselves to a merciful Creator.

Questions to Ponder

1. How would you answer someone who says that Noah’s Flood was not fair?
2. Are you prepared to worship and honor the Great Creator amid distressing circumstances?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom.
Alere Flammam Veritatis.
Soli Deo Gloria.

This is the 21st article in a series on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?
10. Life on Noah’s Ark
11. Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?
12. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Canyons
13. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Fossils
14. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Rock Layers
15. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Worldwide Memories
16. Significance of Noah’s Flood
17. How Did Noah’s Kangaroos Get to Australia?
18. Replicas of Noah’s Ark
19. The Waters of Noah’s Flood
20. How Long Did Noah Live?

Read the sequel:
22. Noah’s Flood — ? . . . coming soon . . .

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday August 31, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 24, 2022

How Long Did Noah Live?

(3 Minute Read. 24Aug2022)

Noah
Painting by James Tissot (1836-1902)

Did Noah really live for more than nine centuries, for almost a thousand years?

Nowadays living for even 100 years is rare.

How could it have been possible for Noah to live for almost 1,000 years? Is that even believable?

The record in Genesis actually has lots of very specific, detailed, age-related information about Noah. He was 500 years old when he fathered Japheth, Shem, and Ham (Genesis 5:32). Noah was six hundred years old when the Flood began. In particular, it started in the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month (Genesis 7:6,11). Notice how specific that information is.

In the six hundred and first year of Noah’s life, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the waters were dried from off the earth and Noah opened the Ark. In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, Noah and his family and the animals left the Ark. (Genesis 8:13-19)

After the flood Noah lived for 350 years. He died at age 950. (Genesis 9:28-29)

It is clear that the author of Genesis intends to report that Noah lived for a very, very long time. Many verses testify of his great age. Several verses date events to the year, month, and day of Noah’s life.

Noah is not the only man to have lived to a great age. Noah’s nine ancestors all lived for hundreds of years — most of them for over 900 years. For example, Adam lived for 930 years. His son Seth lived to age 912. Jared lived for 962 years. Methuselah lived for 969 years. (Genesis 5:3-32) Noah’s son Shem lived to age 600 (Genesis 11:10-11).

How Could Noah Live to 950?

Notice that before Noah’s Flood, lifespans were relatively stable. They averaged over 900 years.

But after the Flood, ages gradually declined. Noah died at age 950, his son Shem died at 600, and his grandson Arpachshad died at 438. Ten generations after Noah, Abraham lived to only 175, and his grandson Jacob to 147. Hundreds of years later around 1400 BC, Moses lived to 120 and Joshua to 110.

The Flood had a dramatic impact on lifespans. Key factors affecting reduced lifespans include:
1. Loss of an atmospheric water barrier
2. Genetic bottleneck
3. Genetic deterioration.

First, the Genesis record reports that on Creation Day Two the Great Creator divided the waters into two portions, one above the heaven and one on earth below the heaven (Genesis 1:6-8). The thick water layer above heaven was the source of the rain that fell for 40 days and 40 nights from the floodgates of the sky at the onset of Noah’s Flood (Genesis 7:11-12).

Before the flood, this thick water layer provided a warm, tropical climate for much of the earth’s surface. Abundant vegetation would have been lush and superbly nourishing. The “waters above the heavens” also gave great protection from fierce ultraviolet radiation which damages and ages human cells. After the “waters above the heavens” precipitated in the Flood, this water barrier no longer shielded people from the sun’s harmful cosmic rays. Thus life spans declined after the Flood.

Second, a genetic bottleneck occurred at the Flood. The entire human population was wiped out except for Noah, his three sons, and their four wives. The subsequent human population descended from only six people: Noah’s three sons and their three wives. Therefore much of the genetic diversity of the human population was lost in the Flood.

The remaining three reproducing couples after the Flood possessed less genetic variation than the drowned population. They produced succeeding generations using less genetic information in their DNA than was in the previous entire population, leading to less vigorous and resilient organisms. Experimental biologists have seen lifespans decline after bottlenecks in various animal populations like dogs and fish, due to the reduced genetic variety.

Third, the reduced lifespans after the Flood follow an exponential decay curve. Due to reduced genetic variation and continuously accumulating mutations over the centuries, humans are degenerating genetically. The pre-Flood men were closer in time and genetics to the perfect Adam and Eve and had accumulated fewer harmful mutational errors in their genes.

The genetic bottleneck at the Flood and the loss of the water barrier stimulated the genetic degeneration and resulting reduced lifespans.

The Genesis record is completely trustworthy. Noah lived for 950 years.

Questions to Ponder

1. If you could live for another hundred years, how would you use the time?
2. Can you think of advantages of reduced lifespans?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 20th article in a series on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?
10. Life on Noah’s Ark
11. Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?
12. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Canyons
13. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Fossils
14. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Rock Layers
15. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Worldwide Memories
16. Significance of Noah’s Flood
17. How Did Noah’s Kangaroos Get to Australia?
18. Replicas of Noah’s Ark
19. The Waters of Noah’s Flood

Read the sequel:
21. How Could Noah Love a God Who Killed So Many People?

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday August 24, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 17, 2022

Remembering the Inventor of MRI

(6 Minute Read plus videos. 17Aug2022)

The BibleScienceGuy with Dr. Damadian
(October 2, 2015)

Dr. Raymond V. Damadian (1936-1922) was a world-famous medical doctor and inventor who revolutionized the field of medicine.

Raymond Damadian is best known for discovering and inventing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This diagnostic tool is now used worldwide to detect cancer.

Dr. Damadian died recently on August 3, 2022 at the age of 86. The name of this brilliant inventor is easy to pronounce if you remember that Damadian rhymes with “Canadian” — although he was born in New York City!

Damadian discovered that tumors and normal tissue can be distinguished in live individuals by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In 1971 he reported this discovery in a research paper in the journal Science.

Damadian invented the first MRI machine for scanning the human body. In 1977 he was the first to diagnose cancer via a full body scan of a human being.

Damadian’s lifelong drive to research cancer solutions was instigated by the death of his adored grandmother from a painful cancer when he was only 10 years old. He was driven to save lives, and through his work has saved millions of lives through the early detection of cancer via MRI.

Damadian plowed through numerous obstacles on the way to developing the MRI scanner. He wrote this in his autobiography:

These kinds of obstacles are what, to put it bluntly, separate the men from the boys. And it’s precisely where…our determination kicked in. Many people have noble and worthwhile dreams, goals, and pursuits. However, few ever achieve those goals or see their dreams become reality. This is partially due to the fact that they allow the inevitable obstacles and opposition to stop them. A great question to ask yourself when pursuing a noble task or passionate life dream is, “What would it take to stop me?”
Those who give up on their pursuits are the ones who spend the rest of their lives wondering about the “what if’s.” Those lives become filled with disappointment and regret. I had decided and determined that I would not be numbered with that group, mainly because we were well aware of the impact such a machine could make in peoples lives. So we resolved to soldier on and keep trying.
(From Gifted Mind: The Dr Raymond Damadian Story, Inventor of the MRI by Jeff Kinley with Dr. Raymond Damadian, September 2015, Master Books, p. 71)

Damadian’s work earned him multiple awards. In 1988 President Reagan awarded him the National Medal of Technology for his MRI invention. In 1989 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for this invention.

In 2001 he received the $100,000 Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award as “the man who invented the MRI scanner.” Here is the Lemelson YouTube video (4:15) describing Damadian’s MRI work.

In the book The Pioneers of NMR and Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: The Story of MRI by Mattson and Simon, the authors comment on Damadian’s work along with that of the Nobel winners Lauterbur or Mansfield:

The incredible amount of courage and pugnacity shown by Damadian, working alone with only two students, without any consistent granting, thus leading him to do most of the development of his system as a self-made man learning when required, electronics, machining, welding and many other technologies in order to build his first prototype, is exemplary for any researcher. This has to be compared with the working conditions of Lauterbur or Mansfield, both working with comfortable fundings in spacious laboratories with many colleagues and students. At least from the point of view of the merit, the work of Damadian, indeed, is considerable.

Damadian Was a Biblical Creationist

Dr. Damadian said,

“I am a young-earth creation scientist and believe that God created the world in six 24-hour days, just as recorded in the book of Genesis. By God’s grace and the devoted prayers of my godly mother-in-law, I invented the MRI scanner in 1969. The idea that scientists who believe the earth is 6,000 years old cannot do real science is simply wrong.”

Listen to Dr. Damadian’s testimony (27 seconds) in his own forceful words:

Dr. Damadian is proof that Biblical creationists can do world-class science. Moreover, this Biblical creationist’s scientific work has saved countless lives worldwide — lives of both evolutionists and creationists.

Meeting Raymond Damadian

I met Dr. Damadian at a conference in October 2015 and had several conversations with him. At age 79 he was a vigorous man who spoke animatedly with passion, personal warmth, and a keen sense of humor.

I immediately made notes of our conversations at the time so that I could accurately report on them later.

Damadian told me that he had revised his opinion that evolution is “science fiction.” He said he now considers it “scientific nonsense.” I agree with him!

Talking with Dr. Damadian at dinner

I talked with him at length about his MRI work over dinner. He felt he was bypassed for the Nobel Prize for his MRI work because the Nobel Committee did not want to give recognition to a Christian and a Biblical Creationist who believes God created the world in six regular days about 6000 years ago.

His company, employing 250+ people, makes and sells MRI machines that he invented. He sued General Electric for patent infringement on the MRI machine. He won initially in court, then won again at the appellate court, and finally won again in the Supreme Court of the US. Chief Justice William Rehnquist said, “Pay them and pay them now.” He won $129 million from the suit.

Damadian told me that in 1996 he had invented a Stand-Up MRI to do scans while a person is sitting, standing, or in any position without having to lie down inside a tube. Surprisingly, he got the idea to do this from the Bible.

Damadian said he is a Bible reader who takes Scripture seriously. He came across a Bible verse saying, “God hath made man upright” (Ecclesiastes 7:29), so he thought why not scan man upright the way he is made.

At the time I talked with Damadian, his MRI scanner machine cost $1.5 million plus $0.5 million for installation. Usually banks finance the machines over five years, but doctors start making money on the machines right away.

Damadian said that he had recently discovered what he thought is the cause of Multiple Sclerosis. Spinal fluid circulates from the brain’s ventricles through the spinal column. Misalignment of the C1 and C2 vertebrae in the neck impedes the flow of the fluid into the spinal cord resulting in increased pressure in the brain. Images from his MRI machine on MS patients show lesions where spinal fluid leaks into the brain. When the misalignment is corrected, patient symptoms have cleared up.

He also thinks this is the cause of Alzheimer’s and autism. Misalignment causes increased pressure and leakage. He thinks the aggressive birthing techniques used today cause the misalignment during the birthing process.

Competent Scientist

Nobel Prize

Damadian was denied a share of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine which went to two later researchers in MRI — Lauterbur and Mansfield.

Many think Damadian should have gotten the Nobel Prize for his invention. They suspect that his prominence as a Christian and Biblical creationist was the obstacle that prevented the Nobel committee from properly recognizing his work.

For example, evolutionist Professor Michael Ruse of Florida State University wrote this:

Although he [Damadian] was the inventor of the first machine that discovers cancers through magnetic resonance imaging, the award went to two other and somewhat subsequent scientists . . .

But perhaps Dr. Damadian does have reason to feel having been slighted for the wrong reasons. He is not just an inventor, but also a very prominent Christian. And not just a Christian of any bland kind, but a Creation Scientist – one of those people who believes that the Bible, especially including Genesis, is absolutely literally true — six days of creation, Adam and Eve the first humans, universal flood, and all of the rest. It is as least as likely a hypothesis that Damadian was ignored by the Nobel committee because they did not want to award a Prize to an American fundamentalist Christian as that they did not think his work merited the fullest accolade. In the eyes of rational Europeans — and Swedes are nothing if not rational Europeans — it is bad enough that such people exist, let alone give them added status and a pedestal from which to preach their silly ideas. Especially a scientific pedestal from which to preach their silly anti-science ideas.

Is this unfair? One certainly feels a certain sympathy for the Nobel committee. Creation science is wrong and (if taught to young people as the truth) dangerous. It does represent everything against which good science stands. However, even the best scientists believe some very strange things, and if we start judging one area of their work in terms of other beliefs that they have, we could well do more harm than good. Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist of them all, had some very strange views about the proper interpretation of such Biblical books as Daniel and Revelation, and in respects believed things about the universe — its past and its future — that make today’s Creation Scientists seem comparatively mild. . . .

All of my life I have fought for evolution and against Creationism. . . . But as one who loves science above all and thinks it the greatest triumph of the human spirit — as one who has no religious beliefs whatsoever — I cringe at the thought that Raymond Damadian was refused his just honor because of his religious beliefs. Having silly ideas in one field is no good reason to deny merit for great ideas in another field. Apart from the fact that this time the Creation Scientists will think that there is good reason to think that they are the objects of unfair treatment at the hands of the scientific community.
(Ruse, M., “The Nobel Prize in Medicine – Was there a Religious Factor in this Year’s (Non) Selection?Metanexus Online Journal, March 16, 2004.)

Former Captain Raymond Damadian of the
U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine
where he began his MRI research in 1965
stands left of the world’s first MRI medical
scanner that he invented, named
Indomitable, now part of the Smithsonian.

In Summary . . .

Raymond Damadian was one of the great scientists of the 20th century. He was convinced of the Creator of Scripture who created the universe in six regular days. For Damadian, creation requires a Creator — the God of the Bible.

Damadian was not duped by the evolutionism that deludes so many intellectuals today. How foolish is the arrogance and hubris of today — where man thinks he is so intellectually advanced and despises the wisdom of previous generations regarding the existence of a Creator!

Belief in a Creator is common sense based on looking at what has been created, just as
innumerable others have argued throughout history, including the Apostle Paul.
That which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. (Romans 1:19-20)

Damadian believed in the Great Creator. He was not fooled by the evolutionism that hoodwinks so many today. Throughout history the vast majority of mankind has known that there must be a Creator.

Damadian believed in the Great Creator and honored his written Word. Today’s intellectuals would do well to pay heed to one whose scientific discoveries far exceed those of most scientists today. Damadian has earned credibility and respect for his opinion.

Questions to Ponder

1. Have you observed someone receiving prejudicial treatment because of Biblical beliefs?
2. Are you prepared to sustain your Scriptural convictions even when experiencing discrimination or mistreatment?
3. Can you think of a way to testify to the Great Creator through Damadian’s achievement, perhaps on an upcoming doctor appointment or upon visiting someone in the hospital?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday August 17, 2022 A.D.

For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God, or give thanks; but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures. (Romans 1:18-23)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 10, 2022

The Waters of Noah’s Flood

(4 Minute Read. 10Aug2022)

Forty-five centuries ago a mind-boggling flood of water enveloped the earth in the worst storm the world has ever known. With tidal waves crashing over continents, that worldwide flood of judgment from Yahweh makes hurricanes and tsunamis of recent decades look like spring showers.

But from where did all the water come to cover the entire earth?

And to where did all the flood waters eventually go?

From Where Did the Water Come?

Answer: The report of Noah’s Flood in Genesis specifies two sources of the flood waters.
In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. The rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights. (Genesis 7:11-12)

Water came from both above and below the earth’s surface.

Subterranean water from beneath the earth’s crust supplied water for the Flood when the fountains of the great deep burst open initiating the Flood. Even today we know there is still substantial water below the surface of the earth.

This is not surprising in light of the earth having been formed in and from water.
By the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water and by water. (2 Peter 3:5)

The Genesis record reports that on Creation Day Two the Great Creator divided the waters into two portions, one above the heaven and one on earth below the heaven.
Then God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” God made the expanse, and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so. God called the expanse heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day. (Genesis 1:6-8)

The water above the expanse (heaven) was likely the source of the rain that fell for 40 days and 40 nights.

To Where Did the Water Go?

Answer: The water of Noah’s Flood is still here! It is in the oceans. Today water covers 70% of the earth.

The pre-Flood earth was much different from today’s earth. Obviously, a global flood would have wreaked tremendous damage and caused enormous changes in the topography of the earth.

For example, there was likely only one continent before Noah’s Flood since there was only a single ocean. On Creation Day Three, the Great Creator brought the waters together into one place and dry land emerged.
Then God said, “Let the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place, and let the dry land appear”; and it was so. God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas; and God saw that it was good. (Genesis 1:9-10)

Noah’s Flood covered the pre-Flood mountains to a depth of 15 cubits (about 25 feet). This is easily possible with the water contained in today’s oceans, especially since earth’s terrain was likely much flatter with lower mountains and shallower valleys before the Flood.

Today the world’s oceans cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface. The average ocean depth beyond the continental shelves is about 12,000 feet, but the ocean trenches are much deeper, even substantially deeper than Mt. Everest’s 29,000 foot height. The Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is 1,580 miles long with a depth of over 36,000 feet.

That is enough water to easily cover the “smoother” earth of Noah’s day. If the surface of today’s earth were smoothed out by raising the ocean basins and flattening the mountains, then the water currently on the earth would uniformly cover the globe to a depth of two miles.

During Noah’s Flood, the rock layers forming the world’s major mountain chains were laid down by the Flood waters. The marine fossils atop all the mountains, even Mt. Everest, testify to this. Later the continents were separated, mountains were raised, and gorges and ocean basins and trenches formed — all by tectonic forces initiated during the Flood. This facilitated the draining of the Flood waters off the earth.

This process is described poetically in Psalm 104:
He established the earth upon its foundations,
So that it will not totter forever and ever.
You covered it with the deep as with a garment;
The waters were standing above the mountains.
At Your rebuke they fled,
At the sound of Your thunder they hurried away.
The mountains rose; the valleys sank down
To the place which You established for them.
You set a boundary that they may not pass over,
So that they will not return to cover the earth.
(Psalm 104:5-9)

The water currently in the oceans is what once covered the “smoother” globe of Noah’s day. The water came from subterranean reservoirs and from rain falling from the sky.

The next time you visit one of the world’s great oceans, remember — you are looking at the water of Noah’s Flood! When you play in the waves, you are playing in the water of Noah’s Flood!

Questions to Ponder

1. What aspect of Noah’s Flood is most amazing to you?
2. Have you ever witnessed the power of rushing water to alter a landscape?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 19th article in a series on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?
10. Life on Noah’s Ark
11. Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?
12. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Canyons
13. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Fossils
14. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Rock Layers
15. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Worldwide Memories
16. Significance of Noah’s Flood
17. How Did Noah’s Kangaroos Get to Australia?
18. Replicas of Noah’s Ark

Read the sequel:
20. How Long Did Noah Live?

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday August 10, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

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Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 3, 2022

Adam’s Apple?

(3 Minute Read. 3Aug2022)

Campground Apple Tree

Walking through our campground I noticed this tree loaded with apples. It reminded me of the common belief that the Forbidden Fruit in the Garden of Eden was an apple.

Many people think Adam’s Forbidden Fruit was an apple, largely because the Forbidden Fruit appears as an apple in so many articles, books, and pictures. Is this correct?

The Great Creator had forbidden Adam to eat of the tree, but the Serpent persuaded Eve to eat, and she gave some to Adam. What was the Forbidden Fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil?

Was the Forbidden Fruit an Apple?

The Forbidden Fruit could not have been an apple. Yahweh clearly specified the allowed food for man and beast:
Then God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life, I have given every green plant for food”; and it was so. (Genesis 1:29-30)

The allowed food included “every plant yielding seed” and “every tree which has fruit yielding seed” and “every green plant.” Apple trees are green plants and apples are fruit with seeds, so they were permissible food. Therefore an apple could not have been the forbidden fruit.

Campground Apple Tree

What Was the Forbidden Fruit?

If the Forbidden Fruit was not an apple, what was it?

Since Adam and Eve sewed fig leaves together to cover themselves after they sinned (Genesis 3:7), some have thought the Forbidden Fruit was likely a fig. Michelangelo (1475–1564) apparently believed this because he depicted the Forbidden Fruit as a fig in his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. But figs have seeds, so figs are out.

Other suggestions for the Forbidden Fruit have included grape, pomegranate, citron, pear, and quince. But all these contain seeds, so these conjectures are wrong.

The pseudepigraphic Book of Enoch says the Forbidden Fruit “resembled grapes extremely fine and its fragrance extended to a considerable distance” (1 Enoch 31:3-5). This is interesting, but the Book of Enoch is outside the canon of Scripture and does not have the authority of God’s Word.

Scripture does not identify the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. It was probably more appealing than Eden’s most succulent peach, its most delicious cherries, or its most delectable pear. Eve was surely familiar with the fruit of Eden which undoubtedly far surpassed what we eat today. Yet the Forbidden Fruit was still “a delight to the eyes” for her (Genesis 3:6) and successfully tempted her.

Eve offers Adam the Forbidden Fruit

Eve offers Adam the Forbidden Fruit
In this picture the Forbidden Fruit looks
similar to a hand grenade — it certainly
blew up all of creation.

The Forbidden Fruit was no doubt a fruit that no longer exists.

If You Were in Eden . . .

If you were in the Garden of Eden at the dawn of history, would you have eaten the Forbidden Fruit?

Would you have obeyed or disobeyed your Creator who commanded,
“From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; but from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die.” (Genesis 2:16-17)

Would you have done better than Adam and Eve did when Eve was tempted by the Serpent in Eden and when Adam let himself be influenced to choose rebellion? Would you have eaten the Forbidden Fruit?

I think the answer is YES. You would have. I would have. Every one of us would have eaten. Adam was the best possible representative to take the obedience test. He was created perfect directly by Yahweh Himself. Yet he failed. He chose disobedience.

And like Adam, all of us his descendants fail to keep Yahweh’s law. On a daily basis we choose disobedience: we lie, we cheat, we steal, we take God’s name in vain, we dishonor parents, we lust after men and women, we covet.

Thank God that Jesus of Nazareth did not fail, even though He did feel the pangs of temptation (Luke 4:13; Hebrews 4:15). Jesus was under far more duress and in much less favorable circumstances than Adam, but He chose obedience. He lived a sinless life and died to pay the penalty for His people’s sin. In our weakness and guilt, each of us is called to receive Jesus’ costly gift of propitiation and cleansing. (Hebrews 4:14-16)

Jesus’ instructions on how to pray are therefore so valuable:
Forgive us our sins, as we have forgiven those who sin against us.
Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.
(Matthew 6:12-13)

Questions to Ponder

1. What strategy have you found most successful for overcoming temptation?
2. What Bible verse do you call to mind when faced with temptation?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday August 3, 2022 A.D.

When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took some of its fruit and ate; and she also gave some to her husband with her, and he ate. (Genesis 3:6)

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Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | July 27, 2022

Kepler Finds Strange Creature

(3 Minute Read. 27July2022)

Woof! Woof!
This is Kepler, Master’s Jack Russell terrier, writing another article for Master’s Bible-Science Guy Blog.

Master has been encouraging me to write more because he says people tell him they like the way I think and enjoy my reports of my escapades. So here goes with another one.

Ambling through our campground last week, I found a dead animal. It looked like a very big overgrown rat with a pointy face, a long, hairless tail, and scraggly fur. I’m less interested in dead animals than live ones, so after a few unpleasant sniffs, Master and I trotted on.

Upon returning a few minutes later, the carcass was gone! I wondered who would have bothered to take such an ugly looking thing.

Master was grinning, so I knew something was up. He told me it was a possum. Possums “play dead” when they feel threatened, and most animals then leave them alone. Apparently this strange creature had gotten up and waddled away after we left the area.

Still I thought it was a horribly disgusting animal, and I wondered why the Great Creator had made it. What good is it? Even more, why did Noah let the thing on the Ark? Why didn’t he let it drown in the Great Flood and be done with it forever?

Master said that the Great Creator brought the animals to the Ark (Genesis 6:20). Noah didn’t pick and choose which animals to take onboard.

I wondered if Noah knew something about possums that most of us don’t know? Did he know something the Great Creator had done with possums? Is it possible that the ugly little possum actually glorifies its Creator?

Possum playing dead

I learned that possums are a great benefit to mankind. They are voracious consumers of pests like roaches, ticks, rats, and snakes.

Possums are nocturnal marsupials. They are excellent climbers and good swimmers. There are 127 species of possums but only one in the US. Called the Virginia opossum, it can be found in the eastern two-thirds of America, and its range is expanding westward. Australia, however, is home to 70 possum species.

Male possums are called jacks and females are called jills. A group of possums is called a passel. If I see a passel of possums, I am going to bark like crazy and chase them up trees.

Most amazingly, I learned that possums are immune to most snake venom, and they do not get rabies. Rattlesnakes and pit vipers can bite and bite and bite possums without killing them. Thanks to the Great Creator‘s possum there is an antidote to snake venom. I’m very glad now that the possum kind was on Noah’s Ark, for otherwise there would be no possums around today to benefit us.

Somewhat disconcertingly, I also learned that some people like to eat possum meat, especially with sweet potatoes. Possum is also used instead of rabbit and chicken in stews.

And there are annual Possum Festivals at which Possum Queens are crowned. At these festivals, possum is served in a variety of ways, and possum furs are sold. I hope Master does not buy Missus a possum fur to wear, because I like to sit close to her, and I really did not like the way that possum I found smelled.

Master told me that he actually saw a Possum Queen in Alabama several decades ago. It was a tremendous honor in that little southern town to be so chosen. He said the whole idea of a festival and queen to celebrate possums astonished him at the time. But he understands it now.

I wouldn’t mind trying some possum meat myself, either raw or roasted. But Master said he has not seen it in grocery stores. However, next time I see a possum, I will help myself.

Anyway, that’s how things look from the Kepler Dog House!

Till next time, this is Kepler signing off. Woof! Woof!

Questions to Ponder

1. Have you ever considered something repellent or useless on first impression, but changed your mind later?
2. Do you enjoy a food that others consider extremely unusual?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 49th article in a series of blog posts on a precocious Jack Russell terrier named Kepler. Numbers 1-8 are by Kepler’s master, the BibleScienceGuy. Numbers 9-49 are by Kepler himself.
Read the prequels:
1. Why I Named Our Puppy “Kepler”
2. Kepler’s Kind
3. Kepler’s Lopsided Trade
4. Kepler’s Amazing Nose
5. Kepler’s Business Card
6. Kepler & the Psycho Squirrel
(with video)
7. Taunting Kepler
8. Adam and Puppies

The following posts are by Kepler:
9. Who Taught Kepler?
10. Kepler Gets a Buddy
(with video)
11. Kepler Chases a Squirrel (with video)
12. Kepler’s Complaint
13. Kepler’s To-Do List
14. Kepler and the Football Weekend
15. Kepler’s Favorite Store
16. Kepler at a Truck Stop
17. Kepler & Henry Catch a Squirrel
18. Kepler Finds Killdeer Eggs
19. Kepler Finds Robin Eggs
20. Kepler Lives to Tell the Tale
21. Kepler, Bears, & Raccoons
22. Kepler Mentors Henry
23. Kepler Gets a Bear
24. Kepler Finds Strange Eggs
25. Kepler Finds Duck Eggs
26. Kepler Gives Thanks
27. Kepler’s Newest Enemy
28. Kepler Loves Bulldogs
29. Kepler Ponders Snow
30. Kepler Wants to Move to Australia
31. Kepler’s Dating Profile
32. Kepler Meets Skunk
33. Kepler Wants to Be Good
34. Kepler on Guard
35. Kepler Chews On Grammar
36. Kepler for President
37. Kepler for President: Grins & Growls #1
38. Kepler for President: Grins & Growls #2
39. Kepler’s Water Guns
40. Kepler Remembers Henry
(with video)
41. Kepler Gives a Virus Briefing
42. Kepler’s Campaign Advice
43. Kepler Ponders Senescence
44. Kepler’s AK-47
45. Kepler Talks Turkey
46. Kepler Versus the Squirrel
47. Kepler Hates This Word
48. Kepler and the FRIB

Read the sequel:
50. Kepler ??? coming soon . . .

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

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Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday July 27, 2022 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)

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