Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | September 2, 2015

Were Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden?

Mosquito

One evening on a recent camping trip, mosquitoes tormented me as I cut up pallets for our blazing campfire. It was all I could do to withstand the Mosquito Blitzkrieg.

Eventually I retreated to our camper away from the assault of the little biting blood-suckers.

I wished that Adam had simply squashed the mosquitoes instead of naming them.

Were Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden?

After wiping dripping blood away, I thought more carefully about the question,
Were mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden before Adam sinned?
I concluded that they were in Eden, because Yahweh created mosquitoes just like everything else, and He finished His work of creation in six days.

And maybe Adam did not even name them, because insects are not in the category of creatures that the Bible says Adam named:
Out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name. The man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky, and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him. (Genesis‬ ‭2:19-20)‬‬

But I think that in Eden mosquitoes were not the annoying pests that they are today, because when Yahweh finished His work of creation, He pronounced everything “Very good.”
God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. (Genesis‬ ‭1:31)

20000117-NewFallenWorld

Mosquitoes — Adam’s Fault

So why are mosquitoes pests today? It is Adam’s fault.

After Adam sinned, Yahweh cursed all of creation. This curse physically changed many things. The ground no longer brought forth only good crops, but now weeds, thorns, and thistles proliferated. Childbirth for women became much more painful. Snakes no longer traveled upright but were condemned to go on their belly. (Genesis 3:14-19)

Yahweh also put enmity between men and snakes. Later after the Flood He changed the brains of animals so that they would fear humans (Genesis 3:15; 9:2).

Another change is that man and animals did not eat meat before the Fall; all were vegetarian. Only after Noah’s Flood did Yahweh authorize man to eat meat (Genesis 9:3).
Then God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life, I have given every green plant for food;” and it was so. (Genesis 1:29-30).

We know very little about what animals were like before Adam’s Fall. One thing we do know is that Creation has been severely distorted by God’s Curse as a result of Adam’s sin. (Romans 8:20-22) But nobody knows how much things changed compared to before the Fall. The full extent of the effects of the Fall and Yahweh’s subsequent curse is unknown.

Thus we have no certain information about what mosquitoes were like before the fall, but I suspect mosquitoes were changed from a benign insect into a pest when Yahweh cursed all of creation because of Adam’s sin. Before the Fall, mosquitoes were a beneficial part of Yahweh’s very good ecosystem. Since then they have become the World’s Most Dangerous Creature through transmitting deadly diseases such as malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever.

Even today many mosquito species do not suck blood. They feed on plant nectar and are active in pollinating plants. Pollination was probably the function of the very good mosquitoes that Yahweh originally created.

Before the Fall, female mosquitoes probably got protein for their egg production from certain plants instead of from blood, just as vegetarians today get protein from a plant-based diet. For example, leghemoglobin is a protein similar to hemoglobin that’s found in plants such as soybean and alfalfa.

AllWet

Were Mosquitoes on the Ark?

Some people criticize Noah for letting the pair of mosquitoes off the Ark. If only Noah had smacked them, it would have saved untold agony for millions of Noah’s descendants.

But we don’t know whether mosquitoes were on the Ark. The Bible does not specifically say that mosquitoes were on the Ark. It says Noah took “animals and birds and everything that creeps on the ground.” (Genesis‬ ‭7:8)

Mosquitoes could have survived the Flood in egg, larva, or pupa form either on the Ark or on floating vegetation mats outside the Ark.

I think it’s likely that mosquitoes plagued Noah and his sons and their work crews as they labored building the Ark. The increase in exhaled carbon dioxide, body heat, and perspiration due to their physical exertion would be key attractive factors for mosquitoes (see Mosquito: World’s Deadliest Creature). So I don’t think Noah would have been favorably disposed to voluntarily board mosquitoes on the Ark.

Thus we can’t really blame Noah for mosquito bites. We have to blame Adam.

One insect that probably was on the ark is the bee. But where did Noah keep the bees? In the archive of course. How could Noah see to take care of them? He used flood lights!

The next time a mosquito bites you, let this minor irritation remind you of the universe-wide consequences of Adam’s sin and the good news of the Gospel which fixes Adam’s mistake.

Questions to Ponder
  1. What would you have enjoyed most about life in Eden?
  2. Even in a sin-cursed, mosquito-infested world, God causes all things to work together for good (Romans 8:28). What other mosquito-like annoyance is buzzing around your life? Will you trust Him with that today?
  3. In your experience, what works best to repel mosquitoes?
  4. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

This is the concluding article in a series on Mosquitoes.
Read the prequels:
Mosquito Blitzkrieg
Mosquito: World’s Deadliest Creature
Mosquito Mechanics

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Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday September 2, 2015 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)


Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 26, 2015

Mosquito Mechanics

WW2 Uncle Sam Mosquito Poster

World War II Uncle Sam Poster
Identifies 2 Enemies – Mosquitoes and Japan
A gun-packing Uncle Sam clenches
Japan’s General Tojo in one hand and
a giant malaria mosquito in the other.
1944 poster by military artist Frank Mack.

A Mosquito Blitzkrieg on a recent camping trip prompted me to think more about mosquitoes than ever before.

I wondered about their presence in the Garden of Eden and how Adam and Noah dealt with them. (This is the subject of the next blog article, Were Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden?.)

Thousands of mosquito species feed on human blood, leaving itchy welts. Mosquitoes also transmit serious diseases like malaria and encephalitis which annually cause millions of deaths worldwide. During World War II, mosquito-transmitted malaria killed over 60,000 U.S. troops.

Thus mosquitoes are the deadliest creature in the world.

But only female mosquitoes are dangerous. Only the female bites and sucks blood. She uses blood proteins to produce her eggs. The male does not bite or suck blood.

How do mosquitoes find blood donors?

Feeding preferences of female mosquitoes include people with type O blood, heavy breathers, people with lots of skin bacteria, people with high body heat, and pregnant women.

Mosquitoes have smelling and heat-sensing organs on their hairy antennae and on their three pairs of legs. Exhaled carbon dioxide, body heat, movement, and perspiration attract mosquitoes. A mosquito’s eyes, which almost fill its head, take infrared images of body heat. Dark clothing attracts mosquitoes, because it holds more heat than light colored clothing.

So strenuous physical exertion is a risk factor when mosquitoes may be present. The increased movement and panting, perspiration, and elevated body temperature will only attract them. Vigorous exercise makes you a mosquito magnet.

Mosquito Drilling for Blood

Mosquito Drilling for Blood

The biting apparatus the Creator gave female mosquitoes is a complex yet minuscule proboscis. A saliva tube and a separate sucking tube are surrounded by two sharp mandibles and two serrated scalpels. These six pieces are sheathed in the tiny proboscis which is inserted only a few millimeters into the skin to find a capillary. The mosquito pumps saliva down one tube before sucking blood up through the other tube.

Mosquito saliva contains an anti-coagulant to prevent blood from clotting and thereby clogging the mosquito’s proboscis. The saliva also contains a blood vessel dilator. These two agents could be useful for medicinal purposes like treating cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.

Mosquito saliva also contains an anesthetic that serves as a local numbing agent. Once the mild painkiller wears off, the remaining saliva under the skin causes the characteristic skin welt and itchiness.

Of around 20 known proteins in mosquito saliva, scientists understand the purpose for only half of them.

The manner in which the Creator equipped the mosquito to hunt and procure blood is beyond impressive! All the equipment and functions have to be finely-tuned, coordinated, and operational from the beginning for the mosquito to survive. Partial development, as would exist in an evolutionary process, would never work and would be fatal to the species.

Mosquito1stFlightClap

Mosquito Mating

Male mosquitoes identify and pursue female mosquitoes by ear, locating them by the sound of their wings. Mosquito ears have as many sound-sensing cells as human ears.

The female wing beat can reach 500 beats per second; males select high frequency beaters for mates. When a mosquito hears an opposite-sex whine from a wing beat, it synchronizes its own pitch to match that of its desired mate. Males can synchronize with female frequencies in a second or two; females take about five seconds to synchronize.

Mosquitoes are prolific. In several weeks a single breeding pair can generate a population of thousands.

Evolutionary biologists place the evolutionary origin of mosquitoes in the Jurassic Period and say they are 210 million years old. Yet the oldest mosquito fossils we have (79 million years old supposedly) look like today’s mosquitoes.

Why has there been no evolution in 79 million years? Why don’t we see mosquitoes the size of eagles terrorizing the planet?

The answer is that Yahweh created life to reproduce according to kind. He built in variation to enable continuation of life kinds as environments change. But kinds cannot change beyond limits the Creator set. There is no way to increase the DNA information to produce a new kind.

Secondly, Yahweh created mosquitoes only 6,000 years ago, not 79 million years ago. There has been no time for them to evolve, even if this were a possibility.

For more about mosquitoes than you ever wanted to know, click Mosquitoes.

Questions to Ponder
  1. Will you choose to trust God’s wisdom and sovereignty, and praise Him even for segments of His creation that are uncomfortable and inconvenient, such as the mosquito?
  2. What practical strategies help you keep calm and cheerful to represent Christ faithfully even when mosquitoes are at their most aggravating?
  3. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

This is the third article in a series on Mosquitoes.
Read the prequels:
Mosquito Blitzkrieg
Mosquito: World’s Deadliest Creature

Read the sequel:
Were Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden?

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday August 26, 2015 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)



Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 19, 2015

Mosquito: World’s Deadliest Creature

Blood-engorged Mosquito

Blood-engorged Mosquito

Mosquito” is Spanish (mosca + ito) for “little fly.” Mosquitoes have six legs and, like flies, they have two wings. But unlike flies, mosquito wings have scales — quite complex wing structures for such small insects. How did that happen? Did Someone design the intricate wings?

What about the mosquito’s six legs? How do the six legs coordinate so that they don’t interfere with each other, or interfere with the wings? Did Someone design the nervous system to synchronize all of those parts and functions?

Thousands of mosquito species (but not all species) feed on the blood of humans, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and even fish.

What about dinosaurs? Did mosquitoes ever bite dinosaurs?

Yes, mosquitoes surely did once bite dinosaurs, as was the premise of the 1993 fictional film Jurassic Park. But it was only thousands of years ago that mosquitoes bit dinosaurs, not 65 million years ago as the movie maintains.

Imagine hordes of lumbering dinosaurs chased across the landscape by black clouds of mosquitoes craving dinosaur blood! It could have happened!

Recently some of the “science fiction” of the Jurassic Park movie has been realized. Scientists have found mosquito fossils with fresh blood in their abdomens. They claim the mosquito fossils are 46 million years old.

But biological tissue degrades rapidly in the presence of moisture and heat. Meat rots, milk sours, food spoils. These and other biological tissues don’t last very long, even with man’s best preservation methods.

The biological molecules in blood, such as hemoglobin, collagen, and DNA, cannot last for more than a few tens of thousands of years at most. It’s ludicrous to think blood could last a thousand times that long, which is the magnitude of the 46-million-years claim. It’s preposterous to think blood could last 46 million years!

Thus these little blood-engorged mosquito fossils contradict the evolutionary time spans, but they are consistent with the Biblical chronology.
(For the mosquito fossil report see Greenwalt, D. et al. “Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins preserved in a Middle Eocene blood-engorged mosquito.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. October 14, 2013.)

Mosquito warning poster in Agra, India

Mosquito warning poster in Agra, India

In addition to mosquito saliva being an itchy skin irritant, mosquitoes also transmit serious diseases like malaria, West Nile virus, yellow fever, dengue fever, encephalitis, hepatitis, and filariasis (the main cause of elephantiasis). They also transmit canine heartworm through biting dogs.

Because of this, mosquitoes are considered the deadliest creature in the world. Annually three million people die from mosquito-transmitted malaria. This is one of the conjectured causes of the death of Alexander the Great in Nebuchadnezzar’s palace in Babylon in 323 B.C.

During World War II, malaria killed over 60,000 U.S. troops in the South Pacific and Africa. In May 1943 General Douglas MacArthur said, “This will be a long war if for every division I have facing the enemy, I must count on a second division in hospital with malaria, and a third division convalescing from this debilitating disease!”

Questions to Ponder
  1. In your experience, what works best to repel mosquitoes?
  2. Why do you think God created mosquitoes? (My thoughts on this are coming soon in the 4th installment, Were Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden?)
  3. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

This is the second article in a series on Mosquitoes.
Read the prequel:
Mosquito Blitzkrieg

Read the sequels:
Mosquito Mechanics
Were Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden?

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday August 19, 2015 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 12, 2015

Mosquito Blitzkrieg

MosquitoBiting

Have you ever been overwhelmed by a mosquito attack?

One evening on a recent camping trip, mosquitoes tormented me as I cut up pallets for our blazing campfire.

Mosquitoes think my wife is super-sweet (they are right), and they go after her with a vengeance. I had her go inside our camper for fear that I would lose her to a voracious swarm of mosquitoes that might collaborate to carry her off for a sumptuous sanguinary feast.

The mosquitoes even bit our little dog Kepler. At only 15 lbs, he’s definitely small enough for a swarm to carry him off, so he had to go inside the camper too.

MosquitoAirlift

I wanted to enjoy the campfire a little longer, so I lashed myself to the picnic table to prevent my being airlifted away by ravenous swarms of blood-thirsty mosquitoes.

Sometimes the Mosquito is called the “Insect from Hell.” It’s hard to argue with this description when a swarm is after your blood.

A mosquito will suck three times its weight in blood. It would take 1,200,000 mosquito bites to suck all the blood from your body.

A Canadian experiment with people who bared arms, legs, and torsos in swarms of newly hatched mosquitoes reported 9,000 bites per person per minute. At this rate you would lose half your blood in two hours.

Komarno, Manitoba in Canada proudly claims to be the “Mosquito Capital of the World.” They warn visitors to beware the giant mosquitoes which can carry off small children.

MosquitoStatue

Komarno, which means mosquito in Ukrainian, boasts the world’s largest mosquito statue, pictured here. Constructed in 1984, the steel mosquito has a 15-foot wingspan.

Over 3500 mosquito species exist with more being found all the time. The U.S. hosts 176 species of mosquitoes.

New Jersey is home to 63 mosquito species. In the 1880s, mosquitoes originating in New Jersey’s marshes plagued New York, earning New Jersey the sobriquet The Mosquito State.

Texas is the state with the most mosquito species with 85, and West Virginia has the fewest with 26. Florida has 80, New York 70, Michigan 60, and California 53.

Despite showing no mercy as I killed many of the little divebombers, some still got through my slapping hands and flailing arms to bite me.

For most species, mosquito lifespans range from a week to several months. However, most of those that tried to bite me experienced shorter than normal lifespans.

I wondered, “How did Adam deal with mosquitoes, especially since at first he wore no protective clothing?” (More on Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden? coming later.)

Questions to Ponder
  1. How big would a mosquito have to be to carry off a 20-lb toddler?
  2. Why would anyone volunteer for the mega-bite Canadian experiment?
  3. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below.

Soli Deo Gloria.

This is the first article in a series on Mosquitoes.
Read the sequels:
Mosquito: World’s Deadliest Creature
Mosquito Mechanics
Were Mosquitoes in the Garden of Eden?

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday August 12, 2015 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | August 5, 2015

Who Made These Holes?

Cedar Tree Holes

Cedar Tree Holes (front)

Cedar Tree Holes

Cedar Tree Holes (back)

Here are two pictures of four different holes in the same cedar tree. I came across these intriguing holes while hiking through the Gerstacker Nature Preserve in Michigan’s eastern Upper Peninsula.

Typically cedars are quite resistant to insects, so usually there’s no reason for animals to dig holes in cedar trees to get insects. So what made these holes?

It was not a human.

It was not a porcupine, raccoon, squirrel, weasel, or wildcat, although some of these animals sometimes use these holes for shelter. So what made these holes?

The pictures show two holes on the “front” of the tree and two on the “back” of the tree. Multiple holes are typical for these animals, as they like to have more than one entrance and exit for their homes.

The first picture has a hand against the tree for scale. In the second picture, notice the pile of wood chips the animal dropped at the bottom of the tree as it opened up a cavity for its home.

What animal made these holes in the cedar tree?

These holes were made by a large black and white bird about the size of a crow that lives deep in forests throughout Michigan. The birds are infrequently seen, but these elongated rectangular holes are characteristic and indicate their presence.

Both males and females of these birds sport a bright red Mohawk like the cartoon character Woody Woodpecker.

What large bird made these holes?

. . .

The bird is the Pileated Woodpecker (pie-lee-ay-tid), Hylatomus pileatus. It is North America’s largest woodpecker.

Pileated woodpeckers often chip out holes like these searching for insects; they can eat 2,000 bugs per day. But since these holes were in a cedar tree, it’s likely they were for a homestead.

Male Pileated Woodpecker Drills Nest Hole

Male Pileated Woodpecker
Drills Nest Hole

The male drills the nest holes which attact a mate. Pileateds only use a hole for one season to raise a brood of three to five chicks. They lay the eggs in April and incubate for 12-16 days. The chicks fledge within a month.

The next year the male pileateds make new holes. This is why the hole was empty when I found it in early July. Because of the freshness of the chips and the lack of weathering of the edges of the holes, I think the holes were made this past spring and then abandoned after the chicks fledged.

Abandoned holes are later used by many other animals including owls, bats, tree-nesting ducks, squirrels, and raccoons.

This All About Birds site has sound clips of pileated woodpecker calls and drilling on trees.

Did you ever wonder why woodpeckers don’t get headaches? Why doesn’t their rapid drilling turn their brains to applesauce? Why don’t their eyeballs pop out when they slam their heads against hard wood?

The Creator provided a shock-absorbing cushion in the pileated’s head. A thick band of muscle absorbs the repeated shocks of the bill pounding a tree.

Eyelids automatically snap shut as the beak slams into the tree to keep eyeballs from popping out of the bird’s head and to keep dust and chips out of the eyes.

Why don’t wood chips, splinters, and sawdust clog the woodpecker’s breathing as it drills holes? Again the Creator provided for this by giving the bird little tufts of feathers to cover its nostrils.

Pileated Woodpecker

Male Pileated Woodpecker

Bugs skedaddle at the sound of the woodpecker’s drill. So how does the bird get its food? The Creator’s ingenious gift to the bird was a specially equipped long tongue. The tongue has barbs to stab bugs and a sticky glue to trap them. A special enzyme dissolves the glue to release the captured bugs into the bird’s mouth for ingestion.

The average adult pileated woodpecker is 16 inches long. That is a handbreadth taller than a 2-liter soda pop bottle. The bird has a six-inch tongue to reach insects inside the holes it drills in trees. If it were proportional, a six foot man would have a tongue over two feet long.

What would you do with a two-foot-long tongue? It wouldn’t fit in your mouth, so you’d have to tuck it into your shirt or wrap it around your neck, and then your tongue and mouth would dry out, and you’d likely often bite your tongue. Moreover your speech would be totally unintelligible!

What about the bird? What does it do with its very long tongue? Does it flop around as the bird flies? Does the tongue sometimes get caught in branches and hang the bird?

Again the Creator had an ingenious solution. When not in use, the pileated stores its six-inch long tongue in a muscular sheath that wraps around its skull into its right nostril.

Pileated Woodpeckers Mated Pair

Mated Pair of Pileated Woodpeckers

In this picture of a mated pair of pileated woodpeckers, the male is on the left. He can be distinguished from the female by his red crest that goes all the way down to his beak and by the extra red stripe along his chin. The female’s crest is only on the top of her head, and she does not have the red stripe.

The pileated woodpecker gets its food by banging its head against trees. In order to be successful and survive, all these special functions and equipment have to be in place and operational. They can’t gradually develop. The bird needs a thick skull, a strong beak, and a thick cushion of shock-absorbing muscle between them.

It needs a long sticky barbed tongue, stiff tail feathers and reverse (backward-facing) toes to act as stabilizing braces as it drills into wood while perched vertically on trees. It needs a finely tuned nervous system to coordinate the action of all these parts.

Could the Pileated Woodpecker have arisen through evolution? Certainly not! If any of these parts or functions were missing, the pileated could not survive. For example, suppose the thick skull or shock-absorbing muscle were missing. After a few whacks on a tree, the bird’s brain is applesauce, and it’s dead on the ground.

The Pileated Woodpecker glorifies its Creator by doing very well what it was well-designed and well-equipped to do.

Questions to Ponder
  1. What was your first guess as to what made the holes in the cedar tree?
  2. What other birds glorify their Creator through special design features?
  3. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday August 5, 2015 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | July 29, 2015

What Is A Blue Moon?

Full moon of March 19, 2011

We all understand that the phrase,
Once in a blue moon,” refers to a rare event. But what exactly is a Blue Moon?

This Friday July 31 will be a Blue Moon. What does that mean?

Blue Moon was once defined in such a complicated astronomical manner that it was practically impossible to decipher. But the modern meaning for Blue Moon is that it is the second full moon of a calendar month.

Typically calendar months have a single full moon. But July 2015 had a full moon on July 2 and will have a second full moon, called a Blue Moon, in two days on July 31.

Sometimes Blue Moon refers to an “extra moon,” such as the 13th full moon of a calendar year. Also, the third full moon of a season which has four can be called a Blue Moon; the first, second, and fourth (last) are regarded as the regular full moons of the season, and the third one is considered the extra or blue moon.

Today a Blue Moon has nothing to do with the color Blue. Blue moons are usually grayish white in color, just like normal full moons.

However, on rare occasions the moon does look blue. This is likely the origin of the centuries-old expression “once in a blue moon” to mean a rare event. The rare blue color is caused by unusual atmospheric interference.

Map showing Krakatoa in the Sunda Strait
between Java and Sumatra

Krakatoa Turns Moon Blue

The Indonesian volcano Krakatoa blew in 1883 before earthquake magnitudes were measured, but it’s estimated to be of magnitude 8.8 – 9.2, one of the largest ever. Surges were recorded on tide gauges 6,000 miles away in Alaska and 11,000 miles away in the English Channel. The explosion is believed to be the loudest sound ever heard in modern history. People reported hearing it 3,000 miles away.

Following the Krakatoa explosion, the moon looked blue for many days. Clouds of volcanic ash ascended through earth’s atmosphere and acted as a blue filter, turning the moon “blue.”

Many volcanic ash particles are 1 micron (=0.001 mm) across. This is about the wavelength of red light, so red light was blocked and scattered by the Krakatoa ash. The ash clouds acted as a filter by only allowing blue light of much shorter wavelength to get through, thereby making the moon look blue.

Huge forest fires can have the same effect on the appearance of the moon.

Sometimes when the moon is low on the horizon it looks red. Tiny droplets in the atmosphere, much smaller than a micron across, scatter the blue light but let the red through. Red-color moons are much more common than blue-color moons.

Friday’s Blue Moon will hit its peak fullness around 6:42 am EDT Friday morning. So you can get a good view of it either Thursday night or Friday night. Look for it above the eastern horizon just after sunset. During the night, it will cross the southern sky to set on the western horizon at sunrise.

The last Blue Moon was August 31, 2012. The next few Blue Moons will be January 31, 2018, March 31, 2018, and October 31, 2020.

Questions to Ponder
  1. Have you ever seen a bluish-colored moon? Do you know what caused it?
  2. Why does earth have a moon? Of what benefit is it?
  3. How would life be different without the moon?
  4. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday July 29, 2015 A.D.

It is the Lord of hosts who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom, and by His understanding He stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 51:15)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | July 22, 2015

Is There Alien Life in Space?

20100806-Alien Imagination

The notion that life exists in galaxies far, far away has long intrigued mankind. This speculation has led to numerous science-fiction movies, TV shows, and books. Could it be true?

Will scientists ever find actual hard evidence of alien life in space? A mammoth new effort is now underway to answer this question.

World-famous British physicist Stephen Hawking and billionaire Russian Internet entrepreneur Yuri Milner announced a $100 million 10-year project to determine if intelligent life exists elsewhere in the universe. In London, England, on Monday July 20, 2015, Hawking and Milner unveiled their Breakthrough Listen project at The Royal Society (the United Kingdom’s national academy of science).

A third of the money will be used to investigate the million stars closest to earth. These funds will pay for 20% of the observing time on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and the CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia.

Another third of the money will be used to build new equipment, and the remaining third will pay astronomers.

Hawking said,

“There is no bigger question. It’s time to commit to finding the answer — to search for life beyond Earth. We are alive. We are intelligent. We must know.”
(Stephen Hawking announces biggest ever probe into alien life, USA Today, 7/20/2015)

Milner also announced Breakthrough Message. This is a $1 million competition to create messages to send out to potential civilizations of alien life forms.

Jupiter and its 4 Galilean Moons (top to bottom): Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto

Jupiter and its 4 Galilean Moons
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
(from top to bottom)

Life on Moons?

Some people speculate there may be life on moons of our solar system, particularly on Europa and Enceladus, because both have water.

Europa is the sixth-innermost moon of Jupiter, the sun’s largest planet. It’s the smallest of Jupiter’s four Galilean moons, which were all discovered by Galileo in 1610. Slightly smaller than earth’s moon, Europa has an icy surface and an oxygen atmosphere.

Jupiter has 62 moons, but the Galilean moons are the four largest. One of them, Ganymede, is the largest moon in the solar system. Earth’s moon is fifth in size.

Enceladus was discovered by William Herschel in 1789. It is the sixth-largest and ninth-innermost moon of Saturn and contains water and carbon. Saturn’s largest moon Titan is often proposed as a location for life also; it’s the solar system’s second-largest moon.

No definite evidence of life has been found on any moons in the solar system, however.

From Where Did Life Come?

Panspermia is the speculative belief that life originated in outer space and was seeded on Earth and other astral bodies by comets, asteroids, and meteorites. Proponents overlook that panspermia, literally “seeding everywhere,” does not explain the origin of life. It just moves the problem elsewhere in the universe.

Senior astronomer Seth Shostak from California’s SETI Institute (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) speculated: “Maybe life was seeded on earth – it developed on comets for example, and just landed here when these things were hitting the very early Earth. It would suggest, well, life didn’t really begin on the Earth, it began as the solar system was forming.”

The oft-repeated claim that life on earth was seeded from outer space is a worldview-generated belief, not a conclusion based on evidence. To date, there is absolutely no substantiation for it. There is no evidence for life originating in space, nor any evidence that life on earth was seeded from space. It’s simply a belief.

Another popular explanation for life is abiogenesis, the belief that life arose spontaneously from non-life. No evidence supports this belief either. It has never been observed to occur, and no explanation exists for how non-life could assemble and organize the vast amount of information needed for life. The information content in the DNA of a single human cell exceeds that of the Library of Congress.

Unregenerate man jumps at any non-Biblical explanation for life that comes along. Bereft of grounding in truth, he falls for anything, no matter how wild and unbelievable the explanation is.

Over the last half-century, thousands of meteorites have been rigorously examined for evidence of life – with no success.

Even if life is unquestionably proven to exist on a meteorite from space, this would prove neither abiogenesis nor panspermia. Nobody would have observed it arising from non-life, nor would we know its true origin.

Moreover, evidence of life on a space meteorite would not address these fundamental issues:
How did life’s inert building blocks initially originate?
How did they supposedly self-organize into living creatures?
How did the “spark of life” originate?
Where life began is very different from how life began.

Life From Earth

If remnants of life are someday discovered elsewhere in the solar system, it’s possible that they originally came from earth, rather than life on earth having come from them.

How could this be?
Genesis suggests a possibility: Noah’s Flood. Prior to the Flood there were huge subcrustal reservoirs of water (“the great deep,” Genesis 7:11). When Earth’s crust ruptured and “the fountains of the great deep burst open” with expulsive energy far surpassing that of volcanoes, bacteria-laden mud and water could have been propelled into space.

Thus its conceivable seeding could have been generated from Earth rather than vice-versa. If someday bacteria are found on meteorites, they could have originally come from Earth.

In fact, seeding by earth happens today. Scientists have found micro-organisms in earth’s upper atmosphere that floated up from earth on wind currents. From there they are pushed out into the solar system by the sun’s solar wind. As they pass by other planets like Mars, the planets’ gravitational attraction would pull some of earth’s micro-organisms to its surface.

Thus an earth-centered “reverse panspermia” is possible. Life goes out from earth into space, rather than coming to earth from space.

Waste of Money

Milner’s and Hawking’s Breakthrough Listen and Breakthrough Message projects are a huge waste of $101 million. Some ancillary benefits may be received from the research, but no evidence of extraterrestrial alien life will be found.

As many have said, extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. And extraordinary evidence for extra-terrestrial physical life is totally absent. In fact, there’s not even any tentative evidence. I’m confident this new effort will not find any evidence, much less extraordinary evidence.

We know from the history book of the universe how life originated on earth, and it did not come on meteorites or comets from space. The Almighty created the universe and all life in six days about 6,000 years ago. And, according to the Genesis record, He created life directly on earth, not out in space.

There is no evidence that Yahweh created physical life anywhere else in the universe. With the exception of angelic spiritual beings, the life Yahweh created is on earth.

Questions to Ponder
  1. Why do you think people are so caught up in finding alien life in space?
  2. What evidence would be sufficient to convince you that there is alien extra-terrestrial physical life in the universe?
  3. If you had an extra $101 million dollars to spend, how would you spend it?
  4. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday July 22, 2015 A.D.

It is the Lord of hosts who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom, and by His understanding He stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 51:15)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | July 15, 2015

What Are These Iron Relics?

Relic 1

The two iron relics hooked together
as I found them

I found the pictured relics on a forest hike in Michigan’s eastern Upper Peninsula. They are solid iron and entirely covered with a thick coat of rust. What are the relics?

I found them in a heavily wooded area that was once home to a mammoth logging operation over a century ago. Nearby were two ancient log cabins. A few miles away is an operating stone quarry. For what were the relics used?

It appears as if one or both pieces could have been broken off from larger instruments, but I have even less idea of what those larger implements could be. What are these iron relics?

I have no idea what the relics were used for, but I am absolutely certain that they had a purpose and use. I am sure they were designed by someone.

Is it reasonable to believe that these solid iron relics were formed through the action of natural forces? Could wind or rain or earthquakes or floods or sunlight or storms have formed these two relics and hooked them together as in the first picture which shows how I found them?

Relic 2

The two iron relics separated

Obviously not. Nobody could truly believe that. Even though I have no idea of their purpose or from what they came, I know for certain that they were designed.

Now as can be seen from the pictures, these relics are fairly simple. They do not compare in complexity with a sextant, watch, or cellphone. And they are far simpler than any single organelle in a living cell or any organ of the human body.

Even though we have no idea who made these relics or for what they were used, it would be absurd to deny that a conscious, intelligent, intentional being designed them. If it is so obvious that these simple relics were designed, how can we deny that the much more complex structures of nature were designed?

Several years ago in a large country hardware store I saw a wall covered with old tools and implements of unknown purpose. A sign requested anyone knowing the purpose of any of the tools on the wall to please share that information. Dozens of tools hung on the wall, tools of completely unknown origin and use. Neither I nor any of the many men working in the store or passing through the store had any idea for what the implements were intended. Yet no one would deny that they were designed by someone for a specific purpose. (I wish now that I had taken a picture of the wall.)

Design is obvious; you don’t even need to know an object’s purpose to know that it was designed. And the existence of a design implies the existence of a designer.

The complexity of all of nature, including the amazing design of the human body, testifies to the Designer and Creator of the universe. He is Yahweh, the God of the Bible.

For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God, or give thanks; but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures. (Romans 1:18-23)

Questions to Ponder
  1. How do you think these iron relics were used?
  2. Were they part of a latching/locking mechanism for one of the log cabins, or were they artifacts from a logging or quarrying operation?
  3. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

Bible-Science Guy logo

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Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday July 15, 2015 A.D.

It is the Lord of hosts who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom, and by His understanding He stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 51:15)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | July 8, 2015

Transformed by Fire

Notice the 5-foot-high stack of firewood pallets beyond the campfire.

Pallet Campfire
Note the 5-foot-high stack of firewood
pallets behind the campfire.

Firewood Pallets

Inspecting my firewood pallets at a campground.

Nails glowing in the fire

Nails glowing in the fire

Readers of this blog know that pallets are the primary source of firewood on our camping trips. I collect discarded pallets for free firewood. I enjoy cutting up pallets and watching them blaze.

Most pallets I rescue are made out of untreated hardwood, although a few are pine, cedar, or fir. Pallets make great firewood because the boards are dry and well-seasoned. Standard pallet construction facilitates air getting to the burning boards, so pallets burn vigorously with especially good flames. Stacking them cross-wise makes a great bonfire.
(See Not Every Wife Would Climb Into a Dumpster… for more about firewood pallets with pictures.)

Of course many of the nails that hold the pallets together end up in the fire. After the wood has burned away from the nails, the heat of the fire makes them glow a beautiful strong bright orange.

The intense heat of the fire has another effect on the nails which I discovered this year. It removes their temper. After being heated to a red-hot glow in the fire and allowed to cool, the nails are much softer and easier to bend than nails pulled from the pallet before burning.

S-Hooks Shaped from Nails

Some S-Hooks I shaped from nails

My wife has enjoyed using nails rescued the next day from the ashes to make artistic creations like mobiles. I pick the bigger ones out of the ashes and bend them into S-hooks which have many uses when camping.

Bending these nails for mobiles and S-hooks is much easier than using unfired nails for the same purpose. The S-hooks are still plenty strong.

In contemplating this, I saw a parallel with life.

Nails losing their temper in a fire is analogous to people being humbled through suffering. Yahweh sometimes uses suffering to remove stiff-necked pride. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in the 6th century BC is a good example:

All this happened to Nebuchadnezzar the king. Twelve months later he was walking on the roof of the royal palace of Babylon. The king reflected and said, ‘Is this not Babylon the great, which I myself have built as a royal residence by the might of my power and for the glory of my majesty?’ While the word was in the king’s mouth, a voice came from heaven, saying, ‘King Nebuchadnezzar, to you it is declared: sovereignty has been removed from you, and you will be driven away from mankind, and your dwelling place will be with the beasts of the field. You will be given grass to eat like cattle, and seven periods of time will pass over you until you recognize that the Most High is ruler over the realm of mankind and bestows it on whomever He wishes.’ Immediately the word concerning Nebuchadnezzar was fulfilled; and he was driven away from mankind and began eating grass like cattle, and his body was drenched with the dew of heaven until his hair had grown like eagles’ feathers and his nails like birds’ claws. “But at the end of that period, I, Nebuchadnezzar, raised my eyes toward heaven and my reason returned to me, and I blessed the Most High and praised and honored Him who lives forever. … Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise, exalt and honor the King of heaven, for all His works are true and His ways just, and He is able to humble those who walk in pride.” (Daniel 4:28-34, 37)

Baking iron nails in a fire till they glow red-hot softens them and destroys their temper. Likewise, Yahweh uses the trials, temptations, and stresses of life to bend His children into shape.
Consider it all joy, my brethren, when you encounter various trials, knowing that the testing of your faith produces endurance. And let endurance have its perfect result, so that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing. (James 1:2-4)

Therefore we do not lose heart, but though our outer man is decaying, yet our inner man is being renewed day by day. For momentary, light affliction is producing for us an eternal weight of glory far beyond all comparison. (2 Corinthians 4:16-17)

For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory that is to be revealed to us. … And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose. (Romans 8:18, 28)

So next time you are going through a trial, imagine yourself as a nail being heated in the fire. You are being “softened” so that the Creator can bend you into a more perfect instrument.

Questions to Ponder
  1. Think of a situation where you felt like a “fired nail.” How did it affect your character?
  2. What Scriptures have challenged you regarding the purpose of life’s trials and sufferings?
  3. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

Bible-Science Guy logo

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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday July 8, 2015 A.D.

It is the Lord of hosts who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom, and by His understanding He stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 51:15)

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | July 1, 2015

Rejected Fawn Is a Star

Dragon

Dragon

Rudolph the legendary red-nosed reindeer, immortalized by Gene Autry in 1949, is not the only deer to experience rejection. Dragon, a white-faced deer, may not go down in history like Rudolph, but he was rejected by his mother and is now attracting attention in Michigan.

Bunny, a piebald whitetail deer, birthed male twin fawns the end of May. She immediately started stomping on one of them trying to kill it. Ranch co-owner Hilary Powell rescued the fawn before the doe could kill it.

The Powells named the fawn Dragon. At two weeks of age Dragon was the star of a fascinating wildlife tour when we visited Deer Tracks Junction in Cedar Springs, Michigan on one of our camping trips. Deer Tracks Junction is a working ranch and animal preserve.

Dragon is a handsome animal with completely milk-white face, legs, and underside. He has sparkling blue eyes and a pink nose.

DeerTracksJuncSign

Piebald deer like Bunny and Dragon have a genetic defect that produces large white areas on the coat. The defect occurs in less than 1 percent of whitetail deer. In addition to white patches, the piebald genetic defect often causes impaired vision, hearing, and kidney function. Dragon is deaf.

Bunny rejected Dragon immediately after birth and tried to stomp him to death. You can still see one of the doe’s hoof marks on the fawn’s hide.

In the wild, does typically kill piebald fawns. Their white coloring keeps them from blending with foliage when trying to hide. The mother doe instinctively does not waste resources on a fawn that won’t make it.

We saw Dragon on our tour, and I even fed him goat milk from a bottle.

BibleScienceGuy feeds Dragon

BibleScienceGuy feeds Dragon

We saw fawns that had been born that very morning along with numerous does and bucks.

It was interesting to spot newborn fawns hidden in grass beds as we drove through the ranch. Fawns have no smell for two weeks. Predators that happen across them will ignore them since they are odorless.

Tiny fawns are often assumed to be abandoned when humans see them lying alone. Actually, the mother is simply keeping her distance except for nursing intervals, so that her scent is not picked up by the fawn, thus spoiling its “imperceptibility” if it were no longer scentless.

The petting farm portion of Deer Tracks Junction is a bargain at $3, or if you take the wildlife tour, the petting farm is included in the $11 admission for the tour.

BibleScienceGuy pets mini-pigs

BibleScienceGuy pets mini-pigs

The petting farm has goats, mini-donkeys, bunnies, pigs, and chickens.

The petting farm buildings and grounds include many innovative play areas and challenging climbing elements, to keep active youngsters intrigued. The vintage ranch theme is beautifully executed, with each creative element a feast for the eyes plus clean and comfortable besides. Everything has been designed and built by the Powell family working together.

On the ranch tour we saw elk, Tibetan yaks, reindeer, and some 150 whitetail deer from multiple generations.

The deer eagerly ate maple leaves and twigs from our hands. They switch to oak in the fall to clean our their digestive tracts as oak has an antibiotic effect.

BSG Feeds Bull Elk by Hand

BSG feeds bull elk by hand

Yaks are males and the female is called a nak. So if you are visiting Tibet and someone asks you to milk a yak, you can tell them you don’t have the knack!

We saw bull and doe reindeer, both with impressive racks. Reindeer are the only deer where both males and females sport antlers.

I fed some of the majestic bull elks double handfuls of oats. They snarfed it out of my hands faster than I can eat a spoonful of oatmeal!

I felt the velvet on the elks’ huge racks. In the fall during rutting season you cannot get near the bulls to feed or touch them. They are extremely aggressive and fight constantly.

BSG-Elk Antler Velvet

BSG feels velvet on elk antlers

I also held last year’s antlers from one of the prize bulls. Each antler weighed about 20 lbs.

Every spring the whitetail deer produce about 100 fawns, most of which are sold when old enough.

The ranch also makes money off their champion bull elks. A single straw of elk semen, which will impregnate one doe, ranges from $100 to $22,000 depending on the quality. You can get 150 straws from a bull in a single annual draw.

Why do people have to buy elk semen to impregnate their elk does? Why haven’t scientists figured out by now how to make artificial elk sperm?

BSG-Elk Antlers

BSG holds 40 lbs of elk antlers

The complexity of a sperm cell is far beyond man’s ability to thoroughly understand, much less replicate.

How could such extreme complexity have evolved through random genetic mistakes, all the while remaining functional and improving at each step?

Is it believable that the female’s equipment and egg cell evolved continually in sync with the male?

Evolution is just too unbelievable for a logical person to believe. There must be an intelligent Creator who is responsible for all that we see. He is the God of the Bible.

Stuffed Grizzly in DTJ lobby

Stuffed Grizzly in DTJ lobby

We thoroughly enjoyed our visit to Deer Tracks Junction. It was an up-close look at a small slice of Creation. The many marvels we saw megaphoned the glory and wisdom of the Almighty.

I recommend Deer Tracks Junction for everyone, from small children to grandparents, as they have activities of interest for all ages.

They even have a delicious ice cream shop for those who just want to enjoy the stuffed animal displays in the lobby. These exhibits include bears, lions, water buffalo, and more in active poses.

Questions to Ponder
  1. What aspect of Creation do you think is most difficult to believe that it was not created but rather evolved?
  2. What is your opinion of preserving a genetically inferior animal through human intervention and bottle feeding? Should humans interfere when the parent seeks to execute defective animal offspring?
  3. It is legal to sell human sperm. What moral or ethical concerns does this raise in your mind?
  4. Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

Soli Deo Gloria.

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:4)
Wednesday July 1, 2015 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)

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