Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | May 18, 2022

Strange Giant in the Milky Way

(3 Minute Read plus video. 18May2022)

Sagittarius A*
Event Horizon Telescope image
(Credit: European Southern Observatory)

Could one of the Great Creator’s most curious and mystifying designs be at the center of our own galaxy?
God thunders with His voice wondrously, doing great things which we cannot comprehend. (Job 37:5)

Astronomers believe that at the center of most galaxies are massive black holes.

Black holes are believed to be collapsed stars that are so dense that not even light can escape the gravitational pull of the star. Hence the name, “black hole.”

Sagittarius A*

Astronomers believe there is a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. Named Sagittarius A*, it lies about 27,000 light-years from Earth with a mass about four million times that of the sun and a radius of 4.2 billion miles. It is huge!!! (A light-year is the distance light travels in a year, almost 6 trillion miles.)
It is God who does great things, unfathomable, and wondrous works without number. (Job 9:10)

The name Sagittarius A* was coined by astronomer Robert Brown who along with Bruce Balick discovered it in February 1974. Brown appended the asterisk because the discovery was exciting, and excited states of atoms are indicated by asterisks. Subsequently asterisks have been used to denote an object at the center of a galaxy.

The presence of a massive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has long been inferred by astronomers based on the motion of nearby stars. In 2020 astrophysicists Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez won the Nobel Prize in Physics for showing that Sagittarius A* is a supermassive compact object. Their calculations tracking stars orbiting the object yielded evidence that the object was so massive and so dense that it had to be a black hole.

Map of the Milky Way Galaxy
Shows the relative position of the Sun and Sagittarius A* at the center.
(Prepared by Pablo Carlos Budassi for Wikipedia. Click to enlarge.)

Just last week physicists released the first image of Sagittarius A*. It was obtained from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a virtual telescope equivalent to a telescope about the size of the entire earth. Signals from eight radio telescopes around the globe were combined.

During five nights in April 2017, astronomers at eight observatories around the world from Spain to the South Pole and from Chile to Hawaii collected nearly 4 petabytes (4,000 terabytes or 4 million gigabytes) of data.

For five years 300 researchers from 80 institutes around the world worked diligently using supercomputers to process, collate, and analyze the mass of data that had been collected. Finally on May 12, 2022, the first image of Sagittarius A* was released.

Here is a four and a half minute video explaining how the EHT obtained a “picture” of Sagitarius A*.

The Great Creator’s Work

The Great Creator has populated His universe with many amazing, very cool objects. Sagittarius A* was completely unknown until the 1970s when radioastronomers noticed a source of radio emissions from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. What other marvels of the Great Creator await discovery in the vast reaches of the universe?
Who does great and unsearchable things, wonders without number. (Job 5:9)

Black holes are certainly some of His most intriguing and most puzzling creations. What is their purpose in the universe? Do they help hold galaxies together?
O LORD, how many are Thy works! In wisdom Thou hast made them all.
(Psalm 104:24)

Sagittarius A* and all black holes should elicit man’s praise to the One who made them and maintains them. We stand in awe of such mind-blowing creations as we wonder about them and as we research what the Great Creator has made.
The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows His handiwork. Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night shows knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. (Psalm 19:1-3)

Questions to Ponder

1. What Scripture would you give someone who feels that black holes are frightening?
2. What purpose can you imagine for why the Great Creator placed black holes in the heavens?

Share your thoughts on this question in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

Bible-Science Guy logo

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Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday May 18, 2022 A.D.

The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows His handiwork. Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night shows knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. (Psalm 19:1-3)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | May 11, 2022

Kepler and the FRIB

(4 Minute Read plus video. 11May2022)

About to leap — Master rides too slowly!

Woof! Woof!
This is Kepler, Master’s Jack Russell terrier, writing another article for Master’s Bible-Science Guy Blog.

Master nearly scared me half to death last week when he said the FRIB is in Michigan.

What in the world is the FRIB?

Master explained it to me, and I’m going to explain here today about the FRIB and some related sciencey stuff. But first, I need to fill you in on some background.

Master takes me camping a lot, and one time I met a stolid English bulldog with a cool name: Fizzy. His Boy named him that because the boy loves something called Physics.

I had never heard of Physics before, so I asked Master about it. Master said Physics is the study of how the Great Creator has built and ordered His creation. Physicists study the fundamental constituents of matter and energy and how they behave and interact in space and time.

This was a bit more than I could comprehend, but that’s what Master said. I do understand that Physics is the study of what our Great Creator made. I think that’s a simple enough explanation.

Recently I heard that our state has a cool new Physics place called the FRIB. Despite being scared at first, I now like the way that sounds. FRIB means Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and it is at Michigan State University.

Master said the FRIB shoots a super-fast particle beam, and that sounds really cool to me. I want to go visit it. Plus I’m always interested in things that move fast, but Master says there’s nothing for me to chase at the Michigan FRIB — the beams zip along at about half the speed of light, a bit too fast for me.

I asked Master what good is that. He said it helps national security identify radioactive weapons being used by bad guys. Rare isotope beams are also used in astronomy. Missus said doctors use rare isotopes to attack cancer and to diagnose and treat illness. It all helps scientists better understand God’s creation.

FRIB has a 400-kilowatt linear accelerator that will shoot a particle beam at an atom’s nucleus. The smash-up results in other versions of an element called isotopes.

At the official opening on May 2, the FRIB lab director Thomas Glasmacher said, “FRIB will be the core piece of our nation’s research infrastructure and today we cut the ribbon to begin our mission of enabling scientific discovery. More than 1,600 scientists are eager to come here because we will be the best, most powerful superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator.”

Here is a 4-minute video on FRIB explaining its role in research and education related to rare-isotope discoveries.

Isotope sounds like a great name for a puppy! Maybe I’d name another pup Ion. Come to think of it, the name Einstein would go well in that litter.

I’ve heard Master talk about a Physics guy named Albert Einstein (1879-1955). One thing Dr. Einstein said is, “The whole of science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday thinking.”
(Albert Einstein, Physics and Reality, 1936)

“Everyday thinking” is something Master loves. Plus Master even likes to think about thinking.
We are destroying speculations and every lofty thing raised up against the knowledge of God, and we are taking every thought captive to the obedience of Christ.
(2 Corinthians 10:5)

Being captive means you don’t go to the wrong place. When I ran away from Missus into the woods behind our house several years ago, an angry black-and-white thing sprayed me with a horrible, smelly, yellow-green goo. It burned my eyes a long time, and I had to have so many scrubby baths. My dear doggie friend Lacey did not want to be captive, and she ran away and got hit by a car. So taking our thinking captive keeps us on the right track thinking-wise, the track of obedience to Christ.

Three Things To Do Every Day

Thinking is one of the things that Master does every day. Can you guess the Three Things that he says people should do every day?

I was able to guess them because I live with Master and know what he does.

Here are Master’s Three Things:
1. Think
2. Laugh
3. Pray

I actually made a fourth guess: Read God’s Word. Master said he includes that under “Think” because he has to think to read, and he thinks about what he reads in the Bible.

My Three Things list is different:
1. Eat
2. Run
3. Sleep

Many say that my list is better than Master’s.

When Master was reading about stuff you can’t see, like targeting a nucleus and forming isotopes at that Michigan FRIB, he started talking about Jesus and atoms again. He said Jesus is the Great Creator who made them all and holds everything together.
He is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of all creation. For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created by Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together.
(Colossians 1:15-17)

Anyway, that’s how things look from the Kepler Dog House!

Till next time, this is Kepler signing off. Woof! Woof!

Questions to Ponder

1. What is your list of Three Things to do every day?
2. What are the personal implications for you that Jesus holds all things together?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 48th article in a series of blog posts on a precocious Jack Russell terrier named Kepler. Numbers 1-8 are by Kepler’s master, the BibleScienceGuy. Numbers 9-48 are by Kepler himself.
Read the prequels:
1. Why I Named Our Puppy “Kepler”
2. Kepler’s Kind
3. Kepler’s Lopsided Trade
4. Kepler’s Amazing Nose
5. Kepler’s Business Card
6. Kepler & the Psycho Squirrel
(with video)
7. Taunting Kepler
8. Adam and Puppies

The following posts are by Kepler:
9. Who Taught Kepler?
10. Kepler Gets a Buddy
(with video)
11. Kepler Chases a Squirrel (with video)
12. Kepler’s Complaint
13. Kepler’s To-Do List
14. Kepler and the Football Weekend
15. Kepler’s Favorite Store
16. Kepler at a Truck Stop
17. Kepler & Henry Catch a Squirrel
18. Kepler Finds Killdeer Eggs
19. Kepler Finds Robin Eggs
20. Kepler Lives to Tell the Tale
21. Kepler, Bears, & Raccoons
22. Kepler Mentors Henry
23. Kepler Gets a Bear
24. Kepler Finds Strange Eggs
25. Kepler Finds Duck Eggs
26. Kepler Gives Thanks
27. Kepler’s Newest Enemy
28. Kepler Loves Bulldogs
29. Kepler Ponders Snow
30. Kepler Wants to Move to Australia
31. Kepler’s Dating Profile
32. Kepler Meets Skunk
33. Kepler Wants to Be Good
34. Kepler on Guard
35. Kepler Chews On Grammar
36. Kepler for President
37. Kepler for President: Grins & Growls #1
38. Kepler for President: Grins & Growls #2
39. Kepler’s Water Guns
40. Kepler Remembers Henry
(with video)
41. Kepler Gives a Virus Briefing
42. Kepler’s Campaign Advice
43. Kepler Ponders Senescence
44. Kepler’s AK-47
45. Kepler Talks Turkey
46. Kepler Versus the Squirrel
47. Kepler Hates This Word

Read the sequel:
49. Kepler ??? coming soon . . .

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday May 11, 2022 A.D.

But now ask the beasts, and let them teach you;
And the birds of the heavens, and let them tell you.
Or speak to the earth, and let it teach you;
And let the fish of the sea declare to you.
Who among all these does not know
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
In whose hand is the life of every living thing,
And the breath of all mankind?
(Job 12:7-10)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | May 4, 2022

Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Rock Layers

(4 Minute Read. 4May2022)

The Bible clearly and unambiguously records an amazing truth:
Noah’s Flood was global!
Does evidence exist today of a worldwide flood?

What about rock layers? A flood of water engulfing the entire globe surely would have left geologic evidence of such a disaster. Is there geologic evidence in rock layers today that a flood once covered the entire earth?

Folded Rock Layers

Sedimentary rock layers are water-borne sediments of mud and sand which have been deposited and then solidified. Earth has tens of thousands of feet of sedimentary rock layers, but no single location has all the layers and thicknesses vary.

Folded and bent layers are common. You may have seen examples along a highway where the road has been cut through a hill. It is astonishing to observe that the rock layers were bent without cracking!

Think back to your childhood when you were making dirt roads for toy cars or a playground for your dolls. Suppose you needed a smooth chute, tunnel, or slide, and suppose you borrowed one of your mother’s fine china plates to carefully fold to make a nice channeled ramp for matchbox cars or a slide for little dolls.

What would happen when you folded your mother’s plate? Regardless of whether it was folded slowly or quickly, it would shatter. Even if enclosed by pliable pressure liners, the plate would get busted. And you could not repair it. Your mother’s set of fine china is now missing a plate.

The same thing happens with rock layers. When bent, solid rock layers shatter.

How is it possible for stacks of sedimentary rock layers in canyons and mountain ranges to bend and fold without cracking, breaking, and fracturing? The only way is if they were rapidly laid down by a flood and then deformed while still wet before drying and solidifying.

Bent and folded rock layers are evidence of Noah’s Flood. The walls of most canyons, and in particular Arizona’s Grand Canyon, exhibit many bent and folded layers. The Grand Canyon even has 90-degree folds with no fracturing at the fold.

Mountain ranges throughout the world also have enormous sedimentary rock layers which have been bent and folded without breaking. Evolutionary geologists say the layers were deposited and hardened millions of years before the mountains were uplifted. This is nonsense! The unbroken folded and bent layers show this theory does not make sense. These sediments were laid down by Noah’s Flood and then bent and folded while still wet, soft, and pliable as the mountains were uplifted near the end of the Flood year.

Transcontinental Rock Layers

Every continent has sedimentary rock layers stretching across most of the continent. Some of the layers cover an entire continent, and some layers can be traced through several continents.

These are water-borne sediments laid down by a flood. Their global character indicates a global flood.

Six thick layers in Arizona’s Grand Canyon can be traced continuing across North America. The limestone layers also appear in England containing the same fossils as in the Grand Canyon.

The chalk beds of southern England (white cliffs of Dover) can be traced west into Ireland. They also appear in the American Midwest from Nebraska to Texas. They appear in Western Australia in the Perth Basin. These same chalk beds occur in Europe and the Middle East in France, Holland, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Israel, and Egypt.

These worldwide chalk beds all have the same characteristic strata above and beneath them, and they have the same fossils embedded within. These identical global beds signal a worldwide flood that deposited them.

Coal beds stretching across America and throughout Europe into Russia share the same plant fossils. Coal beds of the southern hemisphere throughout South America, Australia, Antarctica, India, and South Africa are part of a different massive coal bed as they share the same plant fossils, but different ones from the northern hemisphere coal beds.

Layer Boundaries

If the sedimentary rock layers were really laid down successively over millions of years as evolutionists say, the boundaries between layers should show evidence of erosion and age. But this is not what geologists find. In almost all cases, the boundaries are flat, knife-edge abutments with no evidence of erosion, weathering, or plant growth.

There is almost a mile of exposed sedimentary rock layers in Arizona’s Grand Canyon. If these layers were deposited over 500 million plus years as evolutionary geologists believe, one would expect to see evidence of erosion and age at layer boundaries as layers sat exposed for long periods before the next layer was deposited.

But this is not what people see. The existing evidence is consistent with an enormous flood depositing water-borne sediments rapidly one after the other. This is what would have happened in the year-long worldwide flood of Noah’s day as the swollen oceans washed over continents and around and around the earth.

Sandstone Towers

There are examples in the American West of white sandstone towers that have erupted through other, darker-colored sandstone layers. The composition of the sandstone in the tower is the same as the underlying sandstone layer beneath the darker layer. This indicates the bottom layer was still fluid when forced through the overlying layer.

These intruding sandstone towers are strong evidence for rapid deposition of fluid layers without millions of years in between.

In Conclusion . . .

Was the Flood a catastrophic worldwide deluge, or was it only local? Your answer profoundly affects Creation/Evolution perspectives and radically impacts worldview. Only one answer fits the geological evidence.

Sedimentary rock layers are water-borne sediments of mud and sand which have solidified. Some sedimentary layers tens of feet thick extend multi-state; others span continents. Only a global flood would have the power to erode, transport, and deposit such immense quantities of sediment. Sedimentary rock layers covering continents proclaim that a flood once covered the continents. Such regional and continental deposits are found worldwide and indicate a global flood.

Often sedimentary strata are not flat. Very thick layers have been bent and folded without any cracking or breaking. This folding must have occurred before mud and sand layers hardened, implying rapid deposition by a flood. Great mountain chains such as the Himalayas, Alps, Appalachians, and Rockies are sedimentary rock deposited by the Flood which buckled up afterwards.
You covered it with the deep as with a garment;
The waters were standing above the mountains.
At Your rebuke they fled,
At the sound of Your thunder they hurried away.
The mountains rose; the valleys sank down
To the place which You established for them.
You set a boundary that they may not pass over,
So that they will not return to cover the earth.
(Psalm 104:6-9)

Questions to Ponder

1. How can geologists ignore so much evidence for a global flood?
2. What is God doing in your life that you are choosing to ignore?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 14th in a series of articles on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?
10. Life on Noah’s Ark
11. Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?
12. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Canyons
13. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Fossils

Read the sequel:
15. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: ??? . . . coming soon . . .

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday May 4, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | April 27, 2022

Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Fossils

(4 Minute Read plus 2 videos. 27Apr2022)

The Bible clearly and unambiguously teaches an amazing fact:
Noah’s Flood was worldwide.
Does evidence exist today of a worldwide flood?

A flood of water engulfing the entire globe surely would have left evidence of such a disaster. Is there evidence today that a flood once covered the entire earth?

Fossil Evidence

What kind of evidence would one expect to find after reading the historical report in Genesis 7:17-24? The record states that all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered and that all flesh that moved on the earth perished. From this report it should be obvious as to what evidence would result — fossils all over the world!

Noah’s Flood explains fossils, and fossils bear witness to Noah’s Flood. Fossils are petrified remains of once-living plants and animals. The Flood would have laid down great deposits of water-borne sediments full of plant and animal remains. As the sediments solidified into rock, the remains fossilized. Remains must be buried quickly in order to fossilize instead of decaying.

There is much evidence of rapid burial. Sometimes fossilized tree trunks pass through many rock layers. These polystrate fossils prove that layers were deposited rapidly, for otherwise the trees would have rotted away. Rapid deposition of successive layers is also evidenced by razor-sharp demarcations between layers — there is no erosion, no plant growth between layers, no soil formation. Animal tracks, surface ripples, and raindrop marks have all been preserved as fossils. This means they were quickly covered by sediments; otherwise the fossil tracks, ripples, and raindrop marks would not have kept their clearly defined form.

Without rapid burial by flood sediments, dead animals would decay or be eaten, leaving no fossil trace. In the 1800s, hunters slaughtered an estimated 100 million buffalo on the western plains of the USA. After harvesting the hides, the carcasses were left. But no buffalo fossils exist there, despite the vast number slain. Since they were not rapidly buried by flood sediments, the buffalo carcasses rotted away on the plains without being fossilized.

Consider this fossil evidence: on every continent there are fossils of sea creatures high above sea level. There are many kinds of marine fossils in most of the rock layers of Arizona’s Grand Canyon, even in layers well over a mile above sea level. Marine fossils are found high in the Himalayas. Deep-sea limestone (containing ocean-bottom fossils) crowns Mt. Everest at heights over 29,000 feet.

How did these fossils get there? Marine fossils atop all mountain ranges worldwide relentlessly proclaim, “Global Flood!” Fossil-laden sedimentary strata worldwide are indelible records of a global flood.

Scattered throughout the world are massive fossil graveyards with billions of fossilized plants, animals, and sea creatures all jumbled together in broken and disarticulated states. These were quickly buried in Noah’s Flood and fossilized by vast sediment layers deposited quickly.

Wyoming’s huge Green River limestone formation contains fossils from a variety of ecosystems. Fossils abound from swamp creatures (alligators and turtles), fresh water fish, salt water fish, crustaceans, mammals, and birds. How did these creatures from very different habitats happen to get buried and preserved together? It could only have occurred as a result of Flood deposits.

The Fossil Bluff graveyard in Tasmania, Australia has innumerable marine and terrestrial fossils of over 1,000 species, including a whale and a possum. Since whales and possums do not live together, this is evidence of deposition by an aquatic catastrophe.

The Redwall Limestone of the Grand Canyon extends for over 10,000 square miles up through northern Arizona and into southern Nevada. It has billions of nautiloids (a squid-like sea creature) along with numerous other marine fossils.

Other massive graveyards of jumbled fossils are located at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California, at Florissant, Colorado, and at Mazon Creek near Chicago, Illinois. Well-known international fossil graveyards include Montceau-les-Mines in France and Great Britain’s chalk beds. Others are found across Europe and in the Middle East.

Fossil of a fish eating another fish in the Creation Museum

Fine details like eye structure are preserved in some of the fossils. There are fossils of fish swallowing other fish and a dinosaur giving birth. These are proof of extremely rapid burial in order to capture these actions in stone.

Trillions of tons of vegetation buried in coal beds contain innumerable marine and terrestrial fossils. These occur on every continent including Antarctica.

Here is a 5-minute video on the massive dinosaur graveyard in western North America containing millions of dinosaur fossils. It stretches 1,800 miles long by 1,000 miles wide from Mexico through the US and into Canada. A million square miles contain billions of fossils, including most known dinosaur species along with fossils of plants, birds, marine life, and terrestrial creatures.

In Conclusion . . .

What outcome would you expect based on the Genesis report that a worldwide flood destroyed every living thing on the face of the earth? To answer, Ken Ham of Answers in Genesis coins a memorable phrase, “Billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the earth!”

This record in stone is hard evidence. The worldwide fossil record is a silent witness to a worldwide flood. In fossil graveyards all over the world, thousands of feet above sea level, billions of terrestrial and marine fossils lie jumbled together in death, buried quickly under layers of mud and petrified as rock forms. This is eloquent testimony that oceans in upheaval once washed across continents and covered mountains. It is persuasive evidence supporting the record in Genesis of Noah’s Flood.

Believing the Bible rules out believing that Noah’s Flood was only local. Moreover, the fossil-laden sedimentary strata all over the world are remnants of the Flood still visible today. The Biblical worldview rightly identifies these effects with Noah’s Flood and understands the Flood as God’s global judgment on a sin-soaked world.

Here is Buddy Davis’ catchy earworm tune, “Billions of Dead Things,” emphasizing the fossil record as evidence for Noah’s Flood.

Questions to Ponder

1. Which example of fossil evidence is most intriguing to you?
2. Where could you visit local fossils and ponder the Creator’s amazing lessons of the worldwide flood?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 13th in a series of articles on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?
10. Life on Noah’s Ark
11. Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?
12. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Canyons

Read the sequel:
14. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Rock Layers

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday April 27, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | April 20, 2022

Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Canyons

(5 Minute Read plus video. 20Apr2022)

Does evidence exist of a worldwide flood?

The Bible vividly underscores Noah’s Flood. The first eleven chapters of Genesis cover the first two millennia of world history, yet four of those chapters, six through nine, describe Noah’s Flood. The report in Genesis describes the Flood as covering the entire earth.

If a flood of water once engulfed the entire globe, surely it would have left evidence of such a disaster. Is there evidence today that a flood once covered the earth?

Canyon Evidence

Which came first, the river or the valley?

Many years ago I spent several days hiking in Cuyahoga Valley National Park south of Cleveland with one of my sons. Cuyahoga is an Indian word meaning crooked, and it aptly describes the river in that valley.

Park signs claimed the valley resulted from millions of years of gradual river erosion. However, I had a completely different opinion regarding the valley’s formation.

Park geologists and I both saw precisely the same facts: a deep broad valley with steep side ravines dwarfing a crooked little river. Yet we had totally different explanations of those facts stemming from radically divergent worldviews.

I thought the valley formed quickly by turbulent run-off from a massive flood — probably Noah’s Flood 4500 years ago. After a flood carved the valley, water draining into the bottom of the valley formed the Cuyahoga River.

The river did not make the valley. The valley came first and caused the river.

This is exactly what happened with the North Fork of the Toutle River in Washington state. When the Mount St. Helens volcano erupted again in 1982, geologists watched a violent mud flow carve an enormous canyon in one day. Shortly thereafter the river formed in the bottom of the new canyon as water drained into it.

The formation of Arizona’s famous Grand Canyon was surely similar. Flood waters or mud flows carved the canyon rapidly.

If canyons resulted from Noah’s Flood, Arizona’s Grand Canyon should not be the only canyon. There should be significant canyons all over America. Is this the case?

It certainly is! There are canyons all over the United States. I myself have personally visited the following 14 impressive canyons throughout the USA that probably resulted from Noah’s Flood:

  • Grand Canyon in Arizona
  • Zion Canyon in Utah
  • Bryce Canyon in Utah
  • Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone in Wyoming
  • Bighorn Canyon in Wyoming
  • Black Canyon of the Gunnison in Colorado
  • Elevenmile Canyon in Colorado
  • Grand Canyon of the East in New York’s Letchworth State Park
  • Niagara Gorge in New York and Canada
  • Watkins Glen Gorge in New York
  • Quechee Gorge in Vermont
  • Tallulah Gorge in Georgia
  • Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Ohio
  • Palo Duro Canyon in Texas
Palo Duro Canyon

In September 2009 I camped in Palo Duro Canyon in west Texas southeast of Amarillo. The rocky vistas of “The Grand Canyon of Texas” took our breath away. It is America’s second largest canyon — 120 miles long, 20 miles wide, 800 feet deep. By comparison, Arizona’s Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, 18 miles wide, 6,000 feet deep.

Official dogma is that the Palo Duro Canyon was formed over millions of years through erosion by the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River. This is a small river flowing through the bottom of the canyon. In many places it is just a tiny stream that you can wade across and in places even easily step across with a single step. I personally stepped across it multiple times during our camping trip visit. Did this tiny river form the huge 20-mile-wide Palo Duro Canyon? No way! Rather, the canyon formed the river.

The canyon likely formed rapidly by turbulent run-off from a massive flood — probably Noah’s Flood 4500 years ago. Floodwaters quickly carved through still-soft, water-deposited sediments to reveal the beautiful layers we see today. After the flood carved the canyon, water collecting in the bottom formed the little river.

Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone

Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone

The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming is 24 miles long, up to 1,200 feet deep, and a half-mile wide.

When we camped at Yellowstone National Park in September 2007, it fascinated me that official Yellowstone literature and Yellowstone tour guides said Yellowstone’s Grand Canyon was cut rapidly in weeks or months — probably by floods from melting ice dams at the mouth of Yellowstone Lake and not by the Yellowstone River in the canyon. That’s a huge departure from their previous “millions of years of river erosion” theory that had been so confidently mongered. I think runoff from Noah’s Flood formed the canyon, or possibly post-Flood glacial action formed it as the earth gradually stabilized in the immediately ensuing centuries following the Flood.

Canyons Worldwide

If canyons resulted from the global Flood of Noah, then North America should not be the only continent with canyons. There should be significant canyons all over the world. Is this the case?

It certainly is! There are massive canyons on all continents. Here are some of the most famous canyons of the world outside the USA:

  • Copper Canyon in Mexico. It is deeper and longer than Arizona’s Grand Canyon.
  • Indus Gorge in the Himalayan Mountains is one of the world’s deepest gorges ranging from 14,800 to 17,100 feet deep.
  • Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon in Tibet is one of the world’s deepest canyons reaching 19,714 feet deep and extending for 313 miles.
  • Kali Gandaki Gorge in Nepal is the world’s deepest canyon at about 36,000 feet from the top of the adjacent mountains to the bottom of the gorge.
  • Fish River Canyon in Namibia. It is Africa’s largest canyon at 100 miles long, 16 miles wide, 600 feet deep.
  • Greenland’s Mega Canyon was discovered hidden under a mile of ice in 2013 using radar data from NASA’s Operation IceBridge. It may be the longest canyon in the world at 460 miles long and a half-mile deep.

Here is a short (1:14) NASA video on Greenland’s Mega Canyon:

In Conclusion . . .

As I have camped at many canyons throughout the country, I have marveled at the scenery. I’ve imagined the titanic forces required to carve out immense canyons and to raise rugged mountains.
The mountains rose; the valleys sank down to the place which Thou didst establish for them. (Psalm 104:8)

Some of earth’s most stunning scenery and most striking geographic features resulted from Noah’s Flood — canyons and badlands of highly intricate formations displaying hundreds of layers of sedimentary rock of varied hues. The evidence truly floods the world. What a terrible trauma Noah’s Flood inflicted! What unimaginable upheaval in geology, geography, and weather systems — evident in so many awesome remnants from the Flood as I have personally witnessed at Yellowstone, Grand Teton, Glacier, Badlands, Bighorn Canyon, and Roosevelt National Parks.

Canyons are evidence of Noah’s Flood, and they occur worldwide. Evolutionist dogma is that canyons formed over millions of years through erosion by the rivers in the canyon bottoms. Sometimes these rivers are tiny, like the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River in Palo Duro Canyon in Texas.

A more rational alternative to the evolutionist view is that most canyons were formed quickly as a result of Noah’s Flood via rapid erosion by flood waters and mud flows.

Dam breaches show the power of water to rapidly transform a landscape. Canyons were formed by a lot of water over a little amount of time, not by little rivers of water over a long time.

Evolutionists love to pronounce, “The present is the key to the past.” This is exactly backwards. The truth is, “The past is the key to the present.” A Biblically-informed understanding of the past explains the present geological condition of the earth by Noah’s Flood.

Was the Flood a catastrophic worldwide deluge, or was it only local? Your answer profoundly affects Creation/Evolution perspectives and radically impacts your worldview. Only one answer fits the geological evidence. The Biblical worldview rightly identifies these canyon effects with Noah’s Flood and understands the Flood as God’s global judgment on a sin-soaked world.

Questions to Ponder

1. What evolutionist mis-information has leaked into your worldview from recent media input?
2. What impressive canyon have you seen? Can you envision its formation through massive runoff from Noah’s Flood?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 12th in a series of articles on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?
10. Life on Noah’s Ark
11. Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?

Read the sequel:
13. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Fossils

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Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday April 20, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

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Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | April 13, 2022

Not Ashamed of Jesus

(3 Minute Read plus video. 13Apr2022)

Tomorrow, April 14, 2022, is
National Not Ashamed of Jesus Day.

On April 14 Christians all over the country are encouraged to make a public statement of their faith in Jesus Christ. It is a way of pushing back in a positive manner against the cultural and spiritual rot that is destroying the country.
Do not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord. (2 Timothy 1:8)

National Not Ashamed of Jesus Day is the idea of Christian apologist, radio talk host, and author Dr. Michael Brown. He launched the campaign to establish April 14 as an annual day of observance and witness for Jesus Christ.

Dr. Brown said, “You can wear a Gospel-themed T-shirt to school or bring a Bible to work and put it on your desk. You can share the good news with someone new or make a clear proclamation of your faith on social media. Whatever is permitted and whatever is good and right, this will be the day to send a simple message: we are followers of Jesus, and we are not ashamed.”

Dr. Brown explains his vision for an annual National Not Ashamed of Jesus Day observance in this short (1:36) YouTube video:

Why was April 14 (4-14) chosen for National Not Ashamed of Jesus Day? It was chosen based on the reference (4:14) for the verse in Esther reporting the words of Mordechai to Queen Esther. The Jewish people in Persia were facing attack and annihilation orchestrated by Haman. Mordecai said to his niece Queen Esther,
For if you remain silent at this time, relief and deliverance will arise for the Jews from another place and you and your father’s house will perish. And who knows whether you have not attained royalty for such a time as this?” (Esther 4:14)

Queen Esther told King Ahasuerus of Haman’s plan and the Jewish people were saved.

Queen Esther Denounces Haman to King Ahasuerus


 
What would Jesus think of National Not Ashamed of Jesus Day? Answer this question for yourself in light of these words of Jesus:
“For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.” (Mark 8:38)
In Jesus’ last earthly words He said to His disciples,
“You will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.” (Acts 1:8)

What would the Apostle Paul think of National Not Ashamed of Jesus Day? Answer this question for yourself in light of these words of Paul:
“For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.” (Romans 1:16)
Do not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord. (2 Timothy 1:8)
I am not ashamed; for I know whom I have believed and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him until that day. (2 Timothy 1:12b)

Someone once said, “An oak tree is just an acorn that stood its ground.” I encourage all followers of Jesus Christ to plant themselves in the Word and stand for Jesus. Grow to be an Oak for Jesus.

May we all be unashamed witnesses for Jesus following the example of the Apostle Peter as he boldly spoke in Jerusalem to the chief priests and leaders of the people:
Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, “Rulers and elders of the people, if we are on trial today for a benefit done to a sick man, as to how this man has been made well, let it be known to all of you and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead — by this name this man stands here before you in good health. He is the stone which was rejected by you, the builders, but which became the chief corner stone. And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved.” (Acts 4:8-12)

Like Queen Esther, each of us is in our own current position for such a time as this. Let’s speak up and speak out for belief in Jesus Christ, the Creator, Sustainer, and Ruler of the universe.

Questions to Ponder

1. How do you plan to participate in National Not Ashamed of Jesus Day?
2. What are more ideas for testifying to Jesus on April 14 and then throughout the year?

Share your thoughts on this question in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

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Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday April 13, 2022 A.D.

If you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | April 6, 2022

Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?

(3 Minute Read. 6Apr2022)

This dazzling jigsaw puzzle below got me thinking about zebras. It is a 669-piece wooden jigsaw puzzle by Nautilus Puzzles costing $140.

After thinking about Noah, his Ark, and the Great Flood for weeks, pondering the zebra picture prompted this obvious question:

Were zebras on the Ark?

Zebras

The zebra is a wild horse living in the savannas, open forests, and mountains of Africa. A zebra’s most intriguing and distinctive feature is its stripes.

Are zebras black with white stripes or are they white with black stripes?

The answer is: Neither!

A popular children’s riddle also leads one astray.
Q: What is black and white and red all over?
A: A zebra with a sunburn!

Zebra mother and foal

The hairless skin of a zebra is black. The stripes are either black fur or white fur growing out of that black skin. The fur prevents sunburns.

Zebra stripes are unique to each animal. No two zebras have the exact same pattern. At birth, zebra stripes are reddish-brown. They gradually darken to black as the animal matures.

A herd of zebras is called a dazzle, possibly because you are dazzled by looking at a herd of striped zebras.

The black and white stripes are one of the Great Creator‘s many camouflage patterns for animals. The zebra’s wavy stripes blend with the tall wavy grasses of the plains to make them difficult to see. Likewise zebra stripes make them hard to see in the dim light of dawn and dusk when they seek water. The stripes also make it hard to distinguish a single animal from the herd as their stripes blend together making it difficult for a predator to target a single zebra.

Zebra Dazzle in Samburu National Reserve

Lions love zebra steaks! But lions are color blind, so a dazzle of zebras visually confuses them as everything is black and white.

The average lifespan of a wild zebra is 25 years. Zebras are herbivores, eating grass and various plants. This gradually wears down their teeth, but their teeth never stop growing.

To help zebras survive predatory lions, hyenas, cheetahs, and wild dogs, the Great Creator has gifted zebras with excellent hearing and eyesight as well as speed. They can flee predators as fast as 40 mph. Even newborn foals can escape predators as they can stand within six minutes of birth and can run in 40 minutes.

Zebras in Botswana
How many do you see?

Were Zebras on the Ark?

The zebra is part of the horse kind, along with horses and donkeys. They are in the Equidae family in today’s taxonomic classification scheme.

A zorse is the offspring of a zebra and horse. A zonkey or zedonk is the offspring of a zebra and a donkey. I have personally seen both of these mixes in a zoo.

The horse kind has diversified throughout the roughly 45 centuries following Noah’s Flood. No new genetic information has been produced. But the existing genetic information in the Ark’s horse pair has been sorted, rearranged, shuffled, and sometimes even lost. Nothing new has been produced. It is only a repackaging of the already existing genetic information. This has produced many variants of the horse kind — both extinct and extant.

The Great Creator, the God of the Bible, programmed tremendous genetic diversity in the horse kind. He provided for its multi-varied expressions through the rearrangement of chromosomes via complex cellular mechanisms that man still does not yet fully understand.

Noah probably did not have a zebra as we know it today on the Ark. He took a pair of the horse kind with robust genetic diversity. All horses, zebras, and donkeys that we have today are descended from that pair on Noah’s Ark.

Questions to Ponder

1. Is it still okay for artwork to portray zebras on the Ark?
2. Can you think of an interesting way for art to represent the genetically complex “Horse Kind” that was on Noah’s Ark?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 11th in a series of articles on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?
10. Life on Noah’s Ark

Read the sequel:
12. Evidence of Noah’s Flood: Canyons

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday April 6, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | March 30, 2022

Life on Noah’s Ark

(4 Minute Read. 30Mar2022)

Have you ever wondered what life was like on the Ark during the year-long Great Flood of Noah’s day?

It rained for 40 straight days and nights without letup, continually pounding on the roof and sides of the Ark. Bobbing and tossing violently, the Ark was the original survival capsule as the fountains of the great deep broke open and spewed forth vast amounts of subterranean water. For five months huge waves buffeted the Ark as the waters of Noah’s Flood churned and swirled around the Ark.

What was it like to be on the Ark throughout this storm? What occupied Noah and his family?

The Bible does not include many details about life on the Ark during the Flood, so most of what follows is educated guesswork and reasoned speculation.

Work

Noah’s floating zoo required a great deal of tending, and this labor likely kept Noah’s family far from boredom. We can get an idea of the amount of work involved by looking at big zoos today.

The San Diego Zoo in California is one of the best and most visited zoos in the world. It has about 12,000 animals and employs 1500 staff. Estimating that about 500 of the San Diego Zoo’s staff are needed to manage the zoo’s visitors, which Noah’s Zoo did not have, that leaves 1,000 staff to care for 12,000 animals in San Diego.

I calculated the number of animals on Noah’s Ark to be about 6,000 animals in Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark? Thus using the San Diego Zoo’s ratio of staff to animals, today a work force of about 500 would be hired to care for Noah’s Zoo of 6,000 animals. Therefore, it is safe to assume that Noah’s crew of eight had their hands full caring for all the animals throughout the voyage.

Possibly God may have caused many of the animals either to hibernate or to enter a low-metabolic state. This would have significantly reduced Noah’s zoo chores.

Most of the family’s time was likely taken up with maintaining and operating the systems Noah had designed and built to disburse food and water to the animals. To feed and water the animals probably took several people several hours each morning and evening, even with semi-automated systems Noah may have installed.

Likewise the system for the removal and processing of animal wastes needed daily efforts. Noah would have invented or adapted a composting system to biodegrade waste and neutralize odors. Periodic cleaning of all the animal stalls and cages needed time.

Part of the Ark’s water needs were probably met with rainwater. Someone was likely responsible for collecting and filtering water for human and animal use. Bamboo pipes and simple valves could funnel rainwater into on-board cisterns and disperse the water for needs throughout the Ark. This would require oversight, repairs, and maintenance.

Some of the larger animals would need time daily to stretch and exercise. Managing the exercise rotation would involve significant effort by some of Noah’s family.

I wonder if some of the animals were a royal pain and got on everyone’s nerves. The mischievous monkeys may have been particularly irritating. I wonder if Noah was tempted to build a miniature ark and ship the monkeys off on their own. Or maybe he would have wanted to ship off the cheetahs since he couldn’t trust the cheetah.

In a storm as long and as violent as Noah’s Flood, the Ark would probably have incurred some damage. Fixing leaks and making repairs would occupy some of the family.

Noah probably took a large store of plants, seeds, fruit, and nuts for food for himself and the animals. Noah may have brought bees along so that he could get honey from the archives. And it’s likely he grew some food on board the Ark.

Noah may have had a large garden on the upper deck with sunlight coming from the window at the top of the Ark (Genesis 6:16). Noah and his family were vegetarians since prior to the Flood God had only given green plants, seed-bearing plants, and seed-bearing fruit for food (Genesis 1:29-30). It was only after the Flood that God gave permission to eat meat (Genesis 9:2-4). Part of the upper deck under the long window may have been a vast greenhouse for growing vegetables as well as drying and preserving them.

Some people might think Noah would have had plenty of time to go fishing with his sons, Japheth, Shem, and Ham, to supplement their diet. But this is incorrect for two reasons. First, they did not yet eat fish. Second, Noah couldn’t afford to use his only two worms for bait.

Someone had to be responsible for obtaining food from the stores and garden and preparing meals. But tasty slumgullion would have to wait till after disembarking. Milk and crackers was likely a popular snack on the Ark. Noah could get milk from the cows and quackers from the ducks.

And someone had to be responsible for human housekeeping needs.

Entertainment

We don’t know what Noah and his family did on the Ark for relaxation and amusement. But since there was a Ham on board, there was probably plenty of clowning and entertainment throughout the entire trip.

Musical instruments had been invented before the Flood (Genesis 4:21), so it is likely some of the clan played music.

Activities like sewing, woodworking, and maybe even metalworking (Genesis 4:22) would surely have been enjoyed on the Ark.

One thing we do know is that they did not play cards on the Ark — because Noah was standing on the deck.

Worship

God described Noah as a righteous man, blameless in his time who walked with God (Genesis 6:9). The Apostle Peter called Noah a preacher of righteousness (2 Peter 2:5).

Therefore I think it is likely that Noah’s family spent time on the Ark in worship, prayer, and “Bible reading.” Now Noah did not have the Bible we have today, but he had what makes up the first five chapters of Genesis. He took on the Ark with him the records begun by Adam (Genesis 5:1) and handed down through the patriarchs. It was these records which Moses used to compile Genesis.

Noah and his family surely sought the wisdom of God through prayer as they faced many challenges on the Ark and put their trust in the Great Creator for all the unknowns ahead.

Questions to Ponder

1. If you had been a passenger on Noah’s Ark, what jobs would you have volunteered to do?
2. If you had been a passenger on Noah’s Ark, what would have been your entertainment choices?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the 10th in a series of articles on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?

Read the sequel:
11. Were Zebras on Noah’s Ark?

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday March 30, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | March 23, 2022

Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?

(5 Minute Read. 23Mar2022)

Did Noah’s Flood actually cover the entire globe?

Could it have been merely a regional flood? Many people think so, but is this possible?

Your answer profoundly affects your perspective on Creation/Evolution and seriously impacts your worldview. Only one answer fits the geological condition of the earth! (Geology aspects will be discussed in a future blog article.)

Scripture’s evidence is the pivotal, determining consideration. The Bible’s case for a global flood is utterly convincing.

Here are Ten Biblical Reasons why Noah’s Flood was worldwide, covering the entire globe.

Reason #1 — Universal Terminology

The strongest reason to believe in a worldwide flood is that the Bible uses global, universal terminology to describe Noah’s Flood. Notice these all-inclusive phrases from Genesis 7:17-24:
all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered
all flesh…perished
all mankind (perished)
all that was on the dry land (died)
all in whose nostrils was the breath…of life died
every living thing was blotted out
only Noah was left, together with those…in the ark

Some might think the phrase “all the high mountains” means all mountains known to the author of Genesis. However, the qualification “everywhere under the heavens” removes the potential ambiguity and clarifies that the author means the Flood covered the entire globe. Numerous other universal phrases strengthen this conclusion. For example, the flood waters covered “the face of the whole earth” (Genesis 8:9). Over 30 times such universal phrases occur in the Bible’s four-chapter account of the Flood.

If you wanted to report that a flood enveloped the entire earth, how else could you describe it? What more could you say? Forcing the universal terms of Genesis into “local” interpretations makes the text absurd and meaningless.

The clear meaning of the text has priority unless there is evidence to the contrary within the text itself. The obvious intent of the author is to report a worldwide catastrophic flood which destroyed all land life except for that in Noah’s ark. The Genesis record is not about a local flood. Noah’s Flood was worldwide.

Reason #2 — All High Mountains Covered

No local flood can cover even one mountain since water seeks its own level. Genesis reports all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered by more than 20 feet of water (Genesis 7:19-20). A flood could not rise to cover mountains without covering the world. For example, a local flood covering 17,000-foot Mt. Ararat on which the Ark eventually landed would have to be a 3-mile-high pile of water lasting until the 10th month of such a local flood (Genesis 8:5). Obviously the “local flood” hypothesis does not fit the Genesis record. Noah’s Flood must have been worldwide.

Reason #3 — Why Build an Ark?

If the Flood was only local, why build the Ark? Constructing a ship 90 feet wide, 50 feet high, and 550 feet long was a gigantic task, possibly taking decades. The Ark was enormous with a capacity equivalent to 522 railroad boxcars — although all the animals, including dinosaurs, could be housed in less than a tenth of the available space as shown in Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?

Why would God commission such an enormous project if it were completely unnecessary? Noah could easily have walked around the whole earth in 10 years. If the Flood was only local, why not simply migrate to a safe area? Why bring animals to the ark instead of leading them to safety elsewhere? Why not have birds fly to safety? Noah’s Flood must have been worldwide to require the construction of the Ark.

Reason #4 — Duration of the Flood

The duration of the Flood means it must have been global. The Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 took several hundred thousand lives in southeast Asia, India, and eastern Africa. Yet in each location where the tsunami hit, the flood was over in under an hour, and all tsunami waves were gone within 24 hours. In local floods, even profound depths of surging water ebb away relatively soon. But Noah’s Flood lasted 5 months, and it took 7 more months for the flood waters to recede and earth to dry. This far exceeds times for local floods which are over in a few days at most. Noah’s Flood must have been worldwide.

Reason #5 — Judgment for Sin

God’s judgment for sin via the Flood was universal. God’s clear intent was total annihilation — “to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.” This required a worldwide flood since “earth was filled with violence.” (Genesis 6:7,13,17; 7:4)

If the Flood was only local, why build the Ark?
Why not simply migrate to a safe area?

Reason #6 — God’s Promise

God promised to never again destroy the earth with a flood: “All flesh shall never again be cut off by the water of the flood, neither shall there again be a flood to destroy the earth. This [rainbow] is the sign of the covenant which I am making between Me and you and every living creature…for all successive generations. Never again shall the water become a flood to destroy all flesh.” (Genesis 9:9-17)

In His promise God could not have meant a local flood because many destructive local floods have occurred since then; these local floods would have broken His promise many times. In fact, in the days of Isaiah 1800 years after Noah’s Flood, God used the inviolate nature of this promise to assure people that similarly His lovingkindness would never depart from them (Isaiah 54:8-10). Myriad local floods occurred during this 1800 years, but God recognized no violation of His promise. Therefore Noah’s Flood, the flood that God promised not to repeat, could not have been a local flood; it must have been worldwide.

Reason #7 — Human Descent from Noah

After the Flood, all people were descended from Noah according to Genesis 10. In fact, names of Noah’s descendants through sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth are found in geographical locations all over the world; Ham’s son Canaan is an example. If no people besides Noah’s descendants were left to populate the earth after the Flood, it must have been worldwide.

Reason #8 — Jesus’ View

Jesus believed in a worldwide Flood. He used it to illustrate His return, saying, “And just as it happened in the days of Noah, so it shall be also in the days of the Son of Man: they were eating…drinking…marrying…until the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all.” (Luke 17:26-30; Matthew 24:37-39) A flood which destroyed them all must have been a worldwide flood. See Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real? for more on Jesus’ view of Noah and the Flood.

Reason #9 — Peter’s View

The Apostle Peter learned his doctrine from Jesus, who authorized Peter to teach in His name with His authority (John 20:21). Repeatedly Peter speaks of the Flood as global in its destruction:
The patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through the water.
(1 Peter 3:20)
God did not spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah, a preacher of righteousness, with seven others, when He brought a flood upon the world of the ungodly.
(2 Peter 2:5)
The world at that time was destroyed, being flooded with water. (2 Peter 3:6)

Reason #10 — Other Bible Books

At least eight other Bible books besides Genesis confirm the historical reality of a worldwide flood. See Job 12:15; Psalm 29:10; 104:5-9; Isaiah 54:9; Matthew 24:37-39; Luke 17:24-27; Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5; 3:6. Four books refer to Noah outside the context of the Flood (Genesis, 1 Chronicles, Ezekiel, Luke).

Therefore . . .

Why do some argue for a regional flood? The primary reason is to “rescue” the Bible from disagreement with what they mistakenly suppose evolutionists have “proved.” According to the Genesis record, the Flood covered all the high mountains on the entire earth; it destroyed every person in the world except for the eight on the ark; and it destroyed all birds and animals on the surface of the whole earth outside the ark. The Bible unmistakably teaches that Noah’s Flood was worldwide.

If you believe the Bible, that rules out the idea that Noah’s Flood was only local. Moreover, the fossil-laden sedimentary strata all over the world are remnants of the Flood still visible today. The Biblical worldview rightly identifies these effects with Noah’s Flood and understands the Flood as God’s global judgment on a sin-soaked world.

Was the Flood a catastrophic worldwide deluge, or was it only local? Your answer profoundly affects Creation/Evolution perspectives and radically impacts worldview. Only one answer fits the Biblical accounts. Bible believers understand that Noah’s Flood was worldwide.

Questions to Ponder

1. Has anyone ever tried to persuade you that Noah’s Flood was only local? What did you say?
2. Which one of these 10 proofs will you use to defend the truth about Noah’s Flood?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the ninth in a series of articles on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?
8. What Was Noah’s Flood Like?

Read the sequel:
10. Life on Noah’s Ark

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Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
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©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday March 23, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

Posted by: BibleScienceGuy | March 16, 2022

What Was Noah’s Flood Like?

(4 Minute Read plus video. 16Mar2022)

Nobody alive today has ever seen anything like the Great Flood of Noah’s day. The only eyewitness information we have of the event is the record in Genesis from Noah and his sons.

Scripture reports the Flood occurred when the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened (Genesis 7:11). The source of the flood waters was two-fold: subterranean eruptions and rain from the sky.

The waters above the expanse (Genesis 1:7) precipitated over the course of 40 days in a heavy, intense rainstorm. The Flood was so massive that all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered by over 20 feet of water. (Genesis 7:19-20)

The damage and death toll were extreme, like nothing before or since. The economy of the world was destroyed and all people and animals worldwide were killed except for those on the Ark.
All flesh that moved on the earth perished, birds and cattle and beasts and every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth, and all mankind; 22 of all that was on the dry land, all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, died. 23 Thus He blotted out every living thing that was upon the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky, and they were blotted out from the earth; and only Noah was left, together with those that were with him in the ark.
(Genesis 7:21-23)

Only the 8 people on the Ark
were saved from Noah’s Flood

It is likely that the fountains of the great deep bursting open generated worldwide tsunamis causing towering tidal waves hundreds of feet high crashing across continents at hundreds of miles per hour. Horrific hypercanes likely pounded earth with 300 mph winds, drenching earth with 10 or more inches of rain per hour.

It’s really not possible to grasp the magnitude of Noah’s Flood, but a look at some epic examples of local floods can hint at the forces and damage of Noah’s Flood. How does the worldwide deluge reported in Genesis compare to horrific flooding caused by extreme volcanoes, hurricanes, and tsunamis?

Krakatoa Volcano (1883)

A small-scale example of the forces involved in the upheaval during Noah’s Flood is the undersea eruption of the volcano Krakatoa in May 1883. Estimated to be of magnitude 8.8-9.2 on the Richter scale, the eruption was one of the largest ever.

Map showing Krakatoa in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra

Ocean waves generated by Krakatoa’s eruption totally covered nearby islands and inundated Java and Sumatra 130 feet above sea level six miles inland. Waves killed 36,000 people, destroyed 5,000 boats, and obliterated 295 towns.

Waves caused by the Krakatoa volcano tore across the open ocean at 400 mph, almost the speed of a passenger jet. Surges were recorded on tide gauges 5,000 miles away in South Africa, 6,000 miles away in Alaska, and 11,000 miles away in the English Channel. Krakatoa’s brief eruption produced shock waves detected for five days on barographs around the world.

The explosion is believed to be the loudest sound ever heard in modern history. People reported hearing it 3,000 miles away.

Indian Ocean Tsunami (2004)

The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 was generated by an underwater earthquake of magnitude 9.1–9.3 off the west coast of northern Sumatra. Tsunami waves 100 feet high killed an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries. Local economies along the coasts were devastated. Countries worldwide provided over US$14 billion in humanitarian aid, and even that could only begin support and restoration after the water’s unimaginable destruction.

Hurricane Katrina (2005)

In US history, the worst natural disaster was Hurricane Katrina with 1,245 fatalities in August 2005. Its $108 billion damage quadrupled fierce Hurricane Andrew’s 1992 record. Reaching 175-mph winds and 25-foot storm surges, Katrina hit Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, practically destroying New Orleans. Three million lost power; 700,000 lost homes. Refugees fled to all 50 states.

The magnitude of the disaster is further indicated by the relief effort. Nine thousand Southern Baptists from 41 states contributed 120,000 workdays serving 10,000,000 meals and working on recovery. Salvation Army personnel served 5,000,000 hot meals from 11 field kitchens.

Reporters, preachers, pundits, and politicians lamented flooding of “Biblical proportions.” Although shocking and tragic, Katrina’s flooding which pummeled eight states was trivial compared with Noah’s Flood — when countless tsunamis crashed across continents and hypercanes pounded the globe.

If Hurricane Katrina had been of “Biblical proportions,” who would remain to write or read about it? Ascribing “Biblical proportions” to natural disasters exaggerates far beyond anything I’ve heard in a half-century of news. God will never again send floods of “Biblical proportions,” as rainbows regularly proclaim (Genesis 9:8-17).

Japan Tsunami (2011)

On March 11, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0–9.1 off the coast of Japan generated a Pacific-wide tsunami. Waves over 130 feet high and traveling at over 400 mph hit Sendai, Japan, reaching six miles inland. Deaths numbered 19,747 with 6,242 injured and 2,556 missing.

The quake epicenter in the ocean was 81 miles east of the city of Sendai, 231 miles north of Tokyo. Over 100 aftershocks occurred with most of magnitude 5 or 6 but several of magnitude over 7. The devastation from the quake and resulting tsunami stretched 400 miles along Japan’s northeast coast.

It was a mind-boggling disaster of immense proportions. The World Bank estimated the economic cost at US$235 billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in history.

This six-minute video shows much of the Japanese city of Kesennuma (pop. 74,000) being destroyed and swept away by the tsunami flood waters.


 

What Was Noah’s Flood Like?

The Krakatoa explosion and tsunami, the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, and the Japan Tsunami were devastatingly awful. But they were nothing compared to Noah’s Flood!

In these disasters the flood waters had drained away in a few days. But during Noah’s Flood, the “fountains of the great deep burst open” worldwide for five months. It took five more months for the waters to recede and then two months for the earth to dry. Post-flood geological adjustments continued for centuries.

To get an inkling of what Noah’s Flood was like, imagine hundreds of Krakatoas scattered throughout the oceans erupting for five months generating hundreds of tsunamis washing across continents at hundreds of miles per hour eroding land forms and depositing layer upon layer of sediments.

The oceanic, atmospheric, and geological upheavals of Noah’s Flood defy imagination. For a year, water enveloped earth to a depth of 20+ feet above the mountains. Noah’s Flood actually destroyed the world as it then was, including every man and animal that breathed outside the ark.
By the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water and by water, through which the world at that time was destroyed, being flooded with water. (2 Peter 3:5-6).

Questions to Ponder

1. Have you ever been afraid in a storm? What was it like for those outside the Ark in Noah’s Flood?
2. Noah’s Flood was scary beyond imagining. What response to a holy and righteous Creator does it stir in you?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the comments below. It could encourage or help another reader.

For Christ and His Kingdom. Soli Deo Gloria. Alere Flammam Veritatis.

This is the eighth in a series of articles on Noah. This Noah Series will suggest answers to many of the questions believers and skeptics have about Noah, Noah’s Ark, and Noah’s Flood.
Read the prequels:
1. Think You Know Noah?
2. Did Jesus Think Noah Was Real?
3. How Long Did It Take Noah to Build the Ark?
4. Could Noah Build the Ark in 75 Years?
5. How Big Was Noah’s Ark?
6. Were Dinosaurs on Noah’s Ark?
7. Could Noah Fit All the Animals on the Ark?

Read the sequel:
9. Was Noah’s Flood Global or Local?

Bible-Science Guy logo

Subscribe – Don’t miss future blog posts!
Click the sidebar’s “SUBSCRIBE” button to follow the
Bible-Science Guy Blog. You’ll automatically receive
new posts free by email. Click SUBSCRIBE NOW!

Click Best of Bible-Science Guy for lists of the best Bible-Science Guy posts of each year.
Click Bible-Science Guy Table of Contents for a list of all blog posts starting in October 2007.

©William T. Pelletier, Ph.D.
“contending earnestly for the faith”
“destroying speculations against the knowledge of God”
“for the defense of the gospel”
(Jude 1:3; 2 Cor 10:5; Phil 1:16)
Wednesday March 16, 2022 A.D.

Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.
(Genesis 6:13-17)

Disclaimer: BibleScienceGuy has no control over any advertising that may appear and receives no payment or consideration for it. Ads & “Related” links come from WordPress, not from BibleScienceGuy.

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